Historian Frederick Jackson Turner presented his “frontier thesis” in an address in Chicago, the site of the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition. Turner pointed to expansion as the most important factor in American history. He claimed that “the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development.” In 1890, however, the Census Bureau stated that all the land within the United States was claimed, and there was no longer a frontier. “Now, four centuries from...
After the 1832 Treaty of Payne’s Landing, which called for the Seminole to move west, a group of Seminoles who had opposed the treaty broke from the tribe and resisted relocation, setting off the Seminole War.
Congress passed the Desert Land Act to promote the development of arid western lands. The act allowed settlers 640 acres of public land at a cost of twenty-five cents per acre in return for settlers’ promise to irrigate the land within three years.
President Jackson signed the Indian Removal Acts, which authorized aggressive efforts to open Indian lands to whites and promised financial compensation to Indian tribes that agreed to resettle on lands west of the Mississippi River.
The National Farmers’ Alliance was formed from a merger of regional Farmers’ Alliances in 1880. The national organization, as the regional ones had, aimed to further the interests of farmers through cooperative efforts and education.