The Twelfth Amendment was ratified, altering procedures for the election of the president and vice president. It required separate balloting in the Electoral College for each office to prevent complications like those that arose in the elections of 1796 and 1800.
Nearly a month after election day, George W. Bush was declared winner of the presidential election over Democratic nominee Al Gore with 271 electoral votes to Gore’s 267. Gore won more popular votes than Bush, but Bush had taken twenty-five key electoral votes in Florida, where a recount was set in motion. On December 4, the federal district court ruled to certify the existing count, a ruling upheld by the US Supreme Court. Florida officials ended the recount and declared Bush the winner of Florida’s electoral votes.
Gouverneur Morris (1752–1816) was a member of the Continental Congress, a signer of the Articles of the Confederation, and a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. As a framer of the Constitution, Morris advocated the creation of an executive branch and an electoral college. After the founding, Morris served as a minister to France and, later, in the Senate.
George W. Bush (1946–) was the forty-third president of the United States. Bush’s two-term presidency was marked by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent American wars in the Middle East. The oldest son of former President George H. W. Bush, George W. served in the Texas Air National Guard and worked in the Texas oil industry before entering politics. He was elected as the Republican governor of Texas in 1994 and won reelection in 1998. In 2000, he ran for the presidency against Democratic nominee Al Gore...