The Judiciary Act of 1801 increased the number of federal courts, judgeships, clerks, and marshals. President Adams, whose term of office was about to expire, quickly filled the new positions with Federalists.
John Pickering, a judge of the District of New Hampshire, and Samuel Chase, a Supreme Court justice, were impeached when President Thomas Jefferson led an effort to remove Federalist judges from office. Pickering was convicted and removed from office on March 12, 1804, but Chase was aquitted and returned to his position on March 1, 1805.
During the creation of the new United States government in 1787, Federalists supported the adoption of the new Constitution. Federalists included Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison—the writers of the Federalist Papers. In 1791, Hamilton and other Federalists established the Federalist Party, which supported strong central government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution.