- ›› Coverage Organizations : Iroquois
No Native people affected the course of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century American history more than the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois, of present-day upstate New York. Historians have been attempting to explain how and why ever since, and central to their explanations is the remarkable political and diplomatic structure, the League of the Iroquois.
Glossary Term – Event
Following the founding of Quebec City, Samuel de Champlain entered into an alliance with the Huron Indians. The alliance created a lasting trade partnership between the French and Hurons and helped strengthen both groups against the Iroquois.
Glossary Term – Organization
The League of the Haudenosaunee (also called the Iroquois Confederacy) was a union of five Iroquoian language groups formed sometime between 1350 and 1600. It is believed by members to have been created by a man named Hiawatha, an Onondaga Indian raised by the Mohawks, and Dekanahwideh, a Huron. Probably as a result of effects from the Little Ice Age, Indians in the northeastern woodlands experienced a period of enormous subsistence pressure leading to serious and prolonged warfare. Under Hiawatha’s and Dekanahwideh’s influence, the Mohawks...
Glossary Term – Person
John Sullivan (1740–1795) was a Continental Army general during the American Revolution who defeated the British-allied Iroquois in New York in 1779. Sullivan served in both the First and Second Continental Congresses and became a brigadier general in the Contintental Army in 1775. He led troops at the Battle of Long Island, at which he was captured but soon released. He also took part in battles at Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, and Germantown. He wintered with Washington at Valley Forge in 1777–1778, and in 1779 was ordered to lead a...
Glossary Term – Person
Joseph Brant, or Thayendanegea, (1743–1807) was the Mohawk chief who led the British-allied Iroquois during the American Revolution. Brant, at the direction of his English brother-in-law, Sir William Johnson, was educated at Moor’s Charity School for Indians in Connecticut, where he learned English and converted to the Anglican faith. He fought for the British in the French and Indian War and later received a captain’s commission in 1775. In 1776, Brant emerged as a leader of loyalists and the British-allied Iroquois. He led forces in the...
Key Groups: Adena (500 BC), Hopewell (100 BC)
Religion and Culture: Known as mound builders because they buried the dead in large earth mounds, these groups lived in small farming villages, which were likely run by leaders of clans (relatives). The villages grew and became increasingly complex, building trade networks and creating elaborate artwork using materials from as far away as the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes. Adena culture was...