Massachusetts became the first North American colony to give statutory recognition to slavery, followed by Connecticut, 1660; Virginia, 1661; Maryland, 1663; New York and New Jersey, 1664; South Carolina, 1682; Rhode Island and Pennsylvania, 1700; North Carolina, 1715; Georgia, 1750.
Virginia became the first colony to establish a comprehensive slave code. The code asserted that slaves were real estate, declared “thirty lashes” the punishment for any slave or person of color who assaulted a white person, prohibited slaves from bearing arms or moving without permission, and declared that any master who killed a slave in the course of “correction” would be “acquitt[ed] of all punishment.”
A group of slaves in South Carolina staged a major rebellion. Marching south from the Stono River, the rebels killed whites they encountered and recruited other slaves to join them. White colonists pursued the slaves, and by the end of the rebellion about twenty-five whites and thirty slaves were dead. Most of the slaves who initially escaped were eventually captured and executed or re-enslaved.