Virginia became the first colony to establish a comprehensive slave code. The code asserted that slaves were real estate, declared “thirty lashes” the punishment for any slave or person of color who assaulted a white person, prohibited slaves from bearing arms or moving without permission, and declared that any master who killed a slave in the course of “correction” would be “acquitt[ed] of all punishment.”
A group of slaves in South Carolina staged a major rebellion. Marching south from the Stono River, the rebels killed whites they encountered and recruited other slaves to join them. White colonists pursued the slaves, and by the end of the rebellion about twenty-five whites and thirty slaves were dead. Most of the slaves who initially escaped were eventually captured and executed or re-enslaved.
Half a century of conflict between Britain and France over North America culminated in the French and Indian War, or the Seven Years’ War in Europe. Unlike the three previous Anglo-French wars, which were outgrowths of European conflicts, this one began with colonial initiatives. Fur traders and Virginia planters were interested in exploiting and developing the Ohio River valley region. The French, determined to secure the territory against encroaching British and American traders and land speculators, built a chain of forts along...
John White, sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, arrived in Roanoke with supplies and a new group of colonists. White departed after only a month, leaving about 120 settlers at Roanoke while he returned to England for more supplies and additional colonists. The colony was deserted when White returned in 1590.