In the Adams-Onís Treaty was negotiated by John Adams and the Spanish Minister to the United States. Spain ceded Florida to the United States. The treaty also established the border between Spanish territory and the US.
McCulloch v. Maryland concerned Maryland’s right to levy a prohibitive tax on the Second Bank of the United States. In an effort to remove the tax, James McCulloch, the cashier at the bank’s Baltimore branch, sued Maryland on his employer’s behalf. The Maryland courts upheld the tax but the case was appealed to the Supreme Court, where John Marshall wrote the Court’s unanimous decision overturning the original ruling. The decision broadly interpreted the Constitution, endowing Congress with the power to use all appropriate means...
President James Monroe announced what became known as the Monroe Doctrine. He declared the Western Hemisphere closed to further European colonization and threatened to use force to stop further European interventions in the Americas.
Later called the Tariff of Abominations, the Tariff of 1828 increased the tax on imported manufactured goods. The law economically benefitted the North—New England in particular favored high tariffs—and injured the South, which believed that the tariff was unconstitutional.
The Supreme Court declined to rule in the case of Cherokee Nation v. Georgia on the grounds that “an Indian tribe or nation within the United States is not a foreign state in the sense of the constitution, and cannot maintain an action in the courts of the United States.”
Henry Clay, the Republican nominee for president, proposed the rechartering of the Bank of the United States. Incumbent president and Democrat Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering bill in Congress, calling the Bank “unauthorized by the Constitution.” Upon re-election, Jackson announced the deposit of Federal funds in state banks, which led to his censure and the expiration of the Bank’s charter in 1836.