Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton traveled to London for the World’s Anti-Slavery Convention. They were denied seats in the main hall of the convention, and were only allowed to observe the events from the gallery. William Lloyd Garrison sat in the gallery to protest the exclusion of the women.
John Brown, with allies including five black men, led an armed abolitionist raid on the Harpers Ferry arsenal in Virginia. Two days later the US Army, led by Colonel Robert E. Lee, stormed Harpers Ferry and captured Brown.
James W. Marshall, a 36-year-old carpenter and handyman, discovered gold at a sawmill near Sacramento, California. The discovery set off the California gold rush. In 1849, 80,000 men arrived in California hoping to make a fortune in mining. Few struck it rich, and the gold rush lasted less than a decade.
In the Rush-Bagot Agreement, the United States and Britain agreed to substantially demilitarize the Great Lakes boundary between the US and British Canada, with each cutting their fleets to far fewer vessels. This was the first disarmament agreement made by the United States.
In the Adams-Onís Treaty was negotiated by John Adams and the Spanish Minister to the United States. Spain ceded Florida to the United States. The treaty also established the border between Spanish territory and the US.