In the Adams-Onís Treaty was negotiated by John Adams and the Spanish Minister to the United States. Spain ceded Florida to the United States. The treaty also established the border between Spanish territory and the US.
President James Monroe announced what became known as the Monroe Doctrine. He declared the Western Hemisphere closed to further European colonization and threatened to use force to stop further European interventions in the Americas.
Later called the Tariff of Abominations, the Tariff of 1828 increased the tax on imported manufactured goods. The law economically benefitted the North—New England in particular favored high tariffs—and injured the South, which believed that the tariff was unconstitutional.
The Supreme Court declined to rule in the case of Cherokee Nation v. Georgia on the grounds that “an Indian tribe or nation within the United States is not a foreign state in the sense of the constitution, and cannot maintain an action in the courts of the United States.”
Henry Clay, the Republican nominee for president, proposed the rechartering of the Bank of the United States. Incumbent president and Democrat Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering bill in Congress, calling the Bank “unauthorized by the Constitution.” Upon re-election, Jackson announced the deposit of Federal funds in state banks, which led to his censure and the expiration of the Bank’s charter in 1836.
South Carolina, in protest of federal protective tariffs, adopted an Ordinance of Nullification declaring the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void in the state. President Jackson charged that the state was “on the brink of insurrection and treason.” He sent federal military forces to Charleston, but the crisis was resolved with the passage of Henry Clay’s compromise tariff bill in 1833.