Unaware of a peace treaty signed two weeks earlier, General Andrew Jackson stopped a British attack at the Battle of New Orleans. British forces suffered 2,036 casualties; US forces suffered eight men killed and thirteen wounded.
In Shays’ Rebellion, Massachusetts farmers, faced with high taxes, eviction, and imprisonment for debt, attacked the Springfield arsenal. While the rebellion was eventually put down by state militia, it also helped make clear the need for a stronger central government capable of protecting democratic institutions.
Written anonymously by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions encouraged states to nullify unconstitutional federal laws. The Resolutions were a direct response to the Alien and Sedition Acts.