Written anonymously by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions encouraged states to nullify unconstitutional federal laws. The Resolutions were a direct response to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
President Washington demonstrated the ability of the federal government to enforce its laws by calling out state militia to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion, a revolt by farmers in western Pennsylvania who objected to taxation on whiskey.
An unofficial war between the US and France, the Quasi War was sparked by the XYZ Affair and the decision of the United States to terminate its treaties with France. Consisting of a series of conflicts at sea, the war ended with the signing of the Convention of 1800, which allowed for the end of the previous alliance between the US and France but asserted a “firm, inviolable, and universal peace, and a true and sincere Friendship between” the two countries.