Glossary Term – Event
James Madison was re-elected president.
President Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality, which called on Americans to avoid taking sides in the war between Britain and revolutionary France.
President Washington demonstrated the ability of the federal government to enforce its laws by calling out state militia to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion, a revolt by farmers in western Pennsylvania who objected to taxation on whiskey.
An unofficial war between the US and France, the Quasi War was sparked by the XYZ Affair and the decision of the United States to terminate its treaties with France. Consisting of a series of conflicts at sea, the war ended with the signing of the Convention of 1800, which allowed for the end of the previous alliance between the US and France but asserted a “firm, inviolable, and universal peace, and a true and sincere Friendship between” the two countries.
The Judiciary Act of 1801 increased the number of federal courts, judgeships, clerks, and marshals. President Adams, whose term of office was about to expire, quickly filled the new positions with Federalists.
John Pickering, a judge of the District of New Hampshire, and Samuel Chase, a Supreme Court justice, were impeached when President Thomas Jefferson led an effort to remove Federalist judges from office. Pickering was convicted and removed from office on March 12, 1804, but Chase was aquitted and returned to his position on March 1, 1805.
Zebulon Pike led an expedition that ascended the Arkansas River and crossed the Rocky Mountains. He was captured in Spanish territory and imprisoned in Mexico.
Andrew Jackson signed the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which ended the Creek War, a two-year conflict that had begun as a civil war among the Creek Indians.
Shawnee leader Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames in Canada, ending hopes for an Indian confederation to resist American expansion.
Elbridge Gerry and George Mason called for a “bill of rights” in the Constitution in the last days of the Constitutional Convention. Their proposal was not included in the Constitution, but James Madison pushed through a bill of rights in the first Congress in 1789.