The Judiciary Act of 1801 increased the number of federal courts, judgeships, clerks, and marshals. President Adams, whose term of office was about to expire, quickly filled the new positions with Federalists.
John Pickering, a judge of the District of New Hampshire, and Samuel Chase, a Supreme Court justice, were impeached when President Thomas Jefferson led an effort to remove Federalist judges from office. Pickering was convicted and removed from office on March 12, 1804, but Chase was aquitted and returned to his position on March 1, 1805.
Elbridge Gerry and George Mason called for a “bill of rights” in the Constitution in the last days of the Constitutional Convention. Their proposal was not included in the Constitution, but James Madison pushed through a bill of rights in the first Congress in 1789.
A Philadelphia newspaper published President Washington’s Farewell Address. A plea for national unity against partisan and sectional divisions, the address also called on the United States to avoid getting entangled in foreign alliances.