Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, the most famous work of muckraking fiction, exposed terrible health and labor conditions in meat-packing plants.
Belva Lockwood represented the Eastern Cherokee before the US Supreme Court in their case against the federal government for payments related to land treaties. She won them a $5 million settlement.
Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act, prohibiting the sale of “adulterated or misbranded” food and drugs.
The Pittsburgh Survey—the first comprehensive survey of life and labor in an American city—was published.
In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court upheld a law limiting the workday to ten hours for women.
William Jennings Bryan lost his third bid for the presidency to Republican nominee William Howard Taft.
20,000 shirtwaist makers—80 to 85 percent of whom were women—began a successful labor strike in New York City.
A devastating fire erupted at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City, killing 146 people including many female employees. Outcry over the factory’s conditions led to factory safety reform.
The Ford Motor Company perfected the assembly line and introduced the $5 per day wage, double the industry standard.
The Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified, allowing the federal government to “lay and collect taxes on incomes.”