War nearly broke out between the United States and England when gold was discovered in the disputed boundary area of Venezuela and British Guiana. President Cleveland insisted on upholding the Monroe Doctrine, refusing to allow Great Britain to increase its territory.
Nicaragua became a protectorate of the United States when, to protect American interests in the country, President Taft approved sending a contingent of American marines to the country to deter revolution.
The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty between Nicaragua and the United States was ratified. In exchange for three million dollars, Nicaragua granted the US exclusive rights to build a canal and naval base in that country.
The debate over America’s global role intensified when Cubans began to fight for their independence from Spain in 1895. Americans were sympathetic to Cuba’s struggle for independence, but were divided about how to help. President William McKinley was deeply ambivalent about war against Spain. Ultimately, however, the pressure of public opinion forced McKinley into the war that made the United States an international power. Newspaper publishers like William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer worked up war fever among the public with reports...