Thomas Edison (1847–1931) was an American scientist and inventor. Edison, working from his research lab in Menlo Park, New Jersey, invented a myriad of significant technologies, among them the light bulb and the phonograph.
Leland Stanford (1824–1893) was the American business magnate and one of the “Big Four” builders (with Collis P. Huntington, Charles Crocker, and Mark Hopus) of the Central Pacific railroad. Stanford worked as a lawyer before making a fortune in mining, investments, and other business ventures. He also served as the governor of California and founded Stanford University in 1884.
John Pierpont Morgan (1837–1913) was, by the late 1880s, America’s most successful investment banker. Morgan found success in reorganizing railroads, consolidations of other industries, and in finance and insurance.
John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937) was an American industrialist who organized the Standard Oil company in 1870. Rockefeller made his fortune through Standard Oil and related endeavors. He donated much of his wealth to philanthropic causes for education and research.
Crazy Horse (1849–1877) was a Lakota leader who battled white settlement in the Black Hills of Dakota. In 1876, Crazy Horse fought at Little Bighorn, the battle initiated by American Lieutenant Colonel George Custer. In 1877, he was killed while resisting capture and imprisonment.
William “Boss” Tweed (1823–1878) was a the New York City political boss who ran the corrupt Tammany Hall ring, controlling much of city and state government in New York between the early 1860s and 1871.