Andrew Carnegie published his essay “The Gospel of Wealth” in May 1889. In it, Carnegie asserted the benefits and responsibilities of wealth, calling on the wealthy to consider “the most beneficial result for the community.”
After 1887, the tariff became the central issue in American politics. Democrats, led by Grover Cleveland, charged that the tariff raised prices, enriched the wealthy, and fostered inefficiency. Republicans argued that tariffs promoted infant industries, protected established industries, raised workers’ wages and protected them against low-wage competition, and fostered a rich home market for farm goods. In fact, the tariff was not especially important for manufacturers. European manufacturers could not compete with the American advantages...
After Belva Lockwood received her law degree, she found that the federal Court of Claims refused to allow her to plead cases. In 1876 Lockwood's petition to argue before the US Supreme Court was denied. In 1879, Lockwood successfully petitioned Congress to pass an act allowing women to practice before the US Supreme Court and in 1880, due to her efforts, became the first woman allowed to do so.
In Chicago, a disastrous fire destroys nearly four square miles of the city, leaving 300 people dead and 100,000 homeless. The city soon redevelops and rebuilds, emerging as a major industrial and economic center.
Railroad workers in Martinsburg, West Virginia, initiated a strike to protest working conditions and wages. The strike spread and lasted more than a month, sparking violence and damaging the economy before being put down by federal troops.