Fraser, Mary Ann. Ten Mile Day and the Building of the Transcontinental Railroad. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1993.
Bender, Thomas. Community and Social Change in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1978.
De Leon, Arnoldo. Racial Frontiers: Africans, Chinese, and Mexicans in Western America, 1848–1890. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2002.
Moreno, Barry. Encyclopedia of Ellis Island. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2004.
Novotny, Ann. Strangers at the Door: Ellis Island, Castle Garden, and the Great Immigration to America. Riverside, CT: Chatham Press, 1971.
Pitkin, Thomas M. Keepers of the Gate: A History of Ellis Island. New York: New York University Press, 1975.
Diner, Hasia R. Hungering for America: Italian, Irish, and Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
Diner, Hasia R. Erin’s Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983.
Kessner, Thomas. The Golden Door: Italian and Jewish Immigrant Mobility in New York City, 1880–1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Cannato, Vincent J. American Passage: The History of Ellis Island. New York: Harper, 2009.