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The day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt suspended naturalization proceedings for Italian, German, and Japanese immigrants, required them to register, restricted their mobility, and prohibited them from owning items that might be used for sabotage, such as cameras and shortwave radios. The curfews on Italian immigrants were lifted in October 1942, on Columbus Day.Approximately 600,000 Italian aliens lived in the United States in 1940. About 1,600 Italian citizens were interned, and about 10,000 Italian-...
President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Commencement Address at Howard University: “To Fulfill These Rights,” June 4, 1965, Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential LibraryBackground Information
On June 4, 1965, Lyndon Johnson gave a commencement address to students at Howard...
On the first day of integration at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, angry mobs protested outside the school. Eight of the Little Rock Nine, the African...
In 1969 Thomas Baker conducted an interview with Roy Wilkins, executive directory of the NAACP, based on Wilkins’s experiences with Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. This abridged version of the interview enlightens students about Lyndon Johnson in particular about his relationship with Roy Wilkins and his efforts to address (or not address) issues during the Civil Rights Movement. Students will be able to collectively analyze this document and evaluate the degree to which Johnson was involved...
What conditions created the need for a protest march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, in 1965, and what did that march achieve?Background
Throughout American history, African Americans have struggled to gain basic civil rights, such as the right to vote. When marchers gathered at the foot of the Edmund Pettus Bridge, in Selma, Alabama, on March 7, 1965, to demand voting rights, the nation was forced to acknowledge the depth and breadth of racial discrimination and bigotry that existed in the...