John Brown, with allies including five black men, led an armed abolitionist raid on the Harpers Ferry arsenal in Virginia. Two days later the US Army, led by Colonel Robert E. Lee, stormed Harpers Ferry and captured Brown.
The National Urban League was founded in 1911 for improving the lives of African Americans in urban areas. During its early years, it focused particularly on helping African American migrants from the South transition to northern city life and find jobs and housing.
Redeemers were white southern Democrats who aimed to put an end to Reconstruction and biracial governments and restore the Democratic Party to power in the South. Following the end of Reconstruction, Redemption governments implemented Jim Crow laws to establish voting restrictions and segregation in the South.
The United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) was founded in 1914 by Marcus Garvey, a black nationalist movement leader. The UNIA advocated black pride, self-sufficiency, and a black separatist movement. The UNIA clashed with more moderate organizations like the NAACP, which emphasized integration and equality at home rather than the creation of a separate black state abroad.