John Brown, with allies including five black men, led an armed abolitionist raid on the Harpers Ferry arsenal in Virginia. Two days later the US Army, led by Colonel Robert E. Lee, stormed Harpers Ferry and captured Brown.
The National Urban League was founded in 1911 for improving the lives of African Americans in urban areas. During its early years, it focused particularly on helping African American migrants from the South transition to northern city life and find jobs and housing.
Redeemers were white southern Democrats who aimed to put an end to Reconstruction and biracial governments and restore the Democratic Party to power in the South. Following the end of Reconstruction, Redemption governments implemented Jim Crow laws to establish voting restrictions and segregation in the South.
The United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) was founded in 1914 by Marcus Garvey, a black nationalist movement leader. The UNIA advocated black pride, self-sufficiency, and a black separatist movement. The UNIA clashed with more moderate organizations like the NAACP, which emphasized integration and equality at home rather than the creation of a separate black state abroad.
The Black Cabinet was the semi-official racial-affairs advisory committee of the Roosevelt administration. Organized in 1936 and led by Mary McLeod Bethune, the Black Cabinet was composed of African American members of Roosevelt’s administration and created to represent and address the rights and needs of black citizens.
Ida B. Wells (1862–1931) was an African American activist and journalist whose work focused on exposing and putting an end to violent crimes against African Americans, especially lynching. Wells was born in Mississippi and began her career in journalism after suing the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad for forcibly removing her from a whites-only railroad car. In 1889, she bought an interest in and became editor of the Memphis Free Speech. In 1892, after a triple lynching in Memphis, Wells began an editorial campaign to address the...