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Hi Debbie! My train gets in around 1:30 and then I am going to visit my old college campus for a bit. I should be back around 3-4 if you want to try and meet up after check in? There are some neat places in that area :) My number is (215) 370-7502- call or text!

Did any of the enslaved indigenous north Americans sent outside the country make it back to their homeland tribe? How are they faring where they were sent as of now in 2014?

It would be great if these lessons were mapped into/connected through a larger unit with an essential question.

this was a pretty cool place it seems like very intriguing and mysterious just the way they had a very roman like collapse almost. I loved it personally

I love this resource. I already use it in my World Civilizations Courses. I will now incorporate into my US History Courses.

Is there a document with questions for analyzing the Treaty?

Learning how to build a website or aspects of multimedia design site for a variety of purposes, can be achieved when students enter the online education. Working through a web design and multimedia studies program can make students learn about the industry through a specific education career.
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Thank you Eric! It is fixed.

Correction: it's Santo Domingo, not San Domingo. Nobody has ever called it that. Love this site though!!!

Great argument for a less is more approach to studying the Civil War. Students connect with individual stories and are inspired by them to ask the insightful questions that lead to deeper understandings.

In the intro, the idea of being a "handshake away" from Gettysburg reminds me of the Patricia Polacco children's story of the Civil War called "Pink and Say" which we read to our students at the end of our year to bring everything together. This is a family story passed down through generations about a boy soldier from Ohio in the Union Army who "shook the hand of Abraham Lincoln" before 2nd Bull Run and ends up being saved from a battlefield in Georgia by a Union Colored soldier about his same age.

Individuals, decisions, and chains of consequences are explored in the Shaara historical novel, "The Killer Angels" which is readable by middle schoolers and can be shared in excerpts. This also was well turned into the long film "Gettysburg" which also can be shown and closely viewed in excerpts.

Finally, I remember being a cadet in Army ROTC and studying Chamberlain at Little Round top as a case study in leadership. I still use the leadership manual presentation on occasion with my students.

We've been studying the Civil War through a close viewing of the film "Glory" about the 54th Massachusetts Colored Regiment. Might switch back to Gettysburg this year.

Will also connect a virtual visit to the Gettysburg National Cemetery with our 8th Grade DC trip visit to Arlington National Cemetery.

I had never seen this before and am enamored by the passion that Lucy had for her husband and especially her son. I am sure I can find a way to make it meaningful to my students as well. Can't wait to find other resources of interest!

You can easily complete this in one 90 minute class period.

This article did point out that immigrants were a big part of our history and how they helped shape America today. The article mentioned how the immigrants helped Americans build up tolerance especially cultural and racial tolerance "How liberal would be its traditions; how diverse its population...". I couldn't agree more with this. Where would we be today if Jewish or Irish were still immigrating? Would we still treat them cruelly and welcome them with disgust? I'm almost sure we would. I also agree with the article in which it says Immigration has been the crucial axis of America's development. That is how America started after all, people traveled over sea here to establish a king free coloney. Yet we brush the importance of immigration aside and the contributions the immigrants made. Why? Maybe we still have a part in us that believes we are better? We think we never needed them or their "help"? Whatever the reason is I think we should out a little more emphasis on how immigration helped us today.

I can offer only an explanation; one that seems to make no sense. John Brown was consumed by affective empathy. His inability to cope with the suffering of others drove him to the contradictory behavior of inflicting pain to stop pain.

I agree I like this strategy but am pressed for time to cover too many concepts to spend 4 to 5 days on one concept. I may be able to modify the lesson by orally going over the primary sources using the strategy and allowing the students to complete the writing assignment at home. It is not the ideal situation for I would like to monitor the students' writing processes within the classroom.

I am so pleased to have come upon such a wonderful resource

With much due respect, I find your "Principles" very troubling, since these maxims are subjective. For example, how can anyone possibly know if all other options have been pursued? (Time is always an option, for example, and there is always more of it). In addition, your proposition of "proportion" is problematic, too, since you treat it as if it were an equation. Very few people actually agree on the outcomes of most conflicts, whether they escalate to violence or not. Moreover, the idea that any death is ever justified is also subject to debate, right?

Rather than tell our students what is justified, we should, of course, be facilitating activities that allow them to arrive at their own well-reasoned conclusions.

My two cents.

What a great list. I agree with Linda in how she is adjusting some questions away from yes/no. Essential questions by nature should not have yes/no responses. I will use the basic idea of them for objectives and but revise them to be more open-ended and steer students away from answering in a brief manner.

Excellent snippets of analysis that could help before Wednesday's exam!

Excellent stuff here! Keep up the great work!

On behalf of my students...THANK YOU!
You all are awesome!

I have been reading a historical fiction book by Sue Monk Kidd entitled, "The Invention of Wings". The book charts a fictionalized journey of Sarah Grimke in parallel with a fictional slave girl, named Hetty or Handful. Hetty is given to Sarah on her 13th birthday as her personal slave to wait on her, hand and foot. So, I wanted to read up on the real Grimke sisters. They were both way ahead of their time. This was an excellent essay on the sisters.

Interesting document!

Major General Winfield Scott Hancock never retired from the Army. I believe Cullum's Register would be the best primary source for that information

just great!

This would be great if there was an answer key to accompany the primary source readings. Would have definitely saved a lot of time.

Principles of the Just War

A just war can only be waged as a last resort. All non-violent options must be exhausted before the use of force can be justified.
A war is just only if it is waged by a legitimate authority. Even just causes cannot be served by actions taken by individuals or groups who do not constitute an authority sanctioned by whatever the society and outsiders to the society deem legitimate.
A just war can only be fought to redress a wrong suffered. For example, self-defense against an armed attack is always considered to be a just cause (although the justice of the cause is not sufficient--see point #4). Further, a just war can only be fought with "right" intentions: the only permissible objective of a just war is to redress the injury.
A war can only be just if it is fought with a reasonable chance of success. Deaths and injury incurred in a hopeless cause are not morally justifiable.
The ultimate goal of a just war is to re-establish peace. More specifically, the peace established after the war must be preferable to the peace that would have prevailed if the war had not been fought.
The violence used in the war must be proportional to the injury suffered. States are prohibited from using force not necessary to attain the limited objective of addressing the injury suffered.
The weapons used in war must discriminate between combatants and non-combatants. Civilians are never permissible targets of war, and every effort must be taken to avoid killing civilians. The deaths of civilians are justified only if they are unavoidable victims of a deliberate attack on a military target.

You may want to inquire with the folks at George Mason University.Please see the attached link,Ron

What qualifications must a war meet in order to be called "just?" Possibly starting with Aquinas or Mahabarata?

Shared with my students. They did not say anything.

Fantastic document to use with my Honors students. The Primary Source Documentprovides my students with a real feel for the emotions and thinking of the time period.
It is also a great impetus to encourage a "You are There" summary writing activity!

Neat! *Takes picture*

Would love to get more info on the African American women who served in the WAAC, where can I find that?

Excellent resource for group work.

Adaline Dubois Russell was Almira R. Hancock's mother, and the General's Mother in law.

Mr Mears,
the affiliate program is FREE!!

This was very helpful and it was very interesting.

I don't see anything here, but I know the first thing I'll be asked about is money. Is there a fee to be an affiliate school?

Yes, the majority of our site is fully compatible with Ipad functions.

Thank you for this post, It was a great read which was extremely helpful. Thank you for offering this program

I have been nominated and cannot find where to accept it. I have my materials ready.

Do you want to use this?


Please check your email for messages from You should have received a private link to the application page a few weeks ago. I re-sent that email just now, so you should have it.

If you have any further issues, please reach out by email to

Thank you,


Please check your email for messages from You should have received a private link to the application page a few weeks ago. I re-sent that email just now, so you should have it.

If you have any further issues, please reach out by email to

Thank you,

Yes - THIS QUESTION - needs to be answered. I, too, have been nominated. And I can find NOWHERE on this site that allows a teacher nominee to input supporting materials. And the deadline is fast approaching. Please fix this!

Where do I submit my supporting materials for the award?

I only have 12 weeks with students to get from Taft to at least Carter. Can I afford to spend 3 days on Ike's Farewell address?

Its good to see these historical photographs about Transcontinental Railroad. I agree that we can really appreciate and embraced America’s first transcontinental railroad through this framed photos here.