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The following attachment is my lesson plan for a lesson on Thomas Jefferson/Lewis and Clark in the state of Washington.

I have used this lesson with both regular and AP classes. It helps students better understand the complexities of decision-making during this time period and they also really enjoy the activity.

Attached you will discover the Yalta Agreement with the concept of conflict and resolution. I usually have the students jigsaw the documents in order to have them draw a conclusion about the essential question, "What is necessary in order to create a stable/peaceful post war world?"

NAACP poster listing statistics regarding the 3,436 lynchings that occurred between 1889 and 1922.

Reconstruction leaflet: One side denounces the funding Congress passed in the Freedman’s Bureau Bill as support for ”lazy negros.” The other argues the money is needed for the national debt and praises President Johnson’s veto of the bill.

Here is a project that I have used over the past several years. Non-traditional students have produced exemplary work when completing this assessment.

Lesson Plan on Emancipation Proclamation

Document: Emancipation Proclamation

Here is a suggestion to use photographs and local history as a means to discuss Cold War fears.Abandoned Nike Missle sites offer many teachers an artifact in or near students hometowns.

Frederick Douglass discusses the exodus of blacks from the South to the North.

Use to describe migration of blacks from South over different periods; during slavery, Great Migration, Post WWII, etc.

Document #1: Atlantic Charter

document #2: Prague Spring


I'm excited, so I'll get the conversation going. I'm traveling from California, I will be arriving at DCA at around 11:30 am.

I was also wondering if it was recommended if we need to bring a lap top too?


Wendy Payan

Protagonist's fear of contact with white women.

Good mini-DBQ

Support for Invisible Man re the veterans at the Golden Day.

This is my favorite assignment to teach critical thinking skills. I hope you enjoy it!

Hey Ken and Nick,
We DID get the same shuttle afterall.

Ironically there was no evacuation of Japanese Americans from Hawaii.

These will be the same 'strong oaks' fighting in WWII less than a decade later.

Learned how to save documents to my file, using this document as an example (GL seminar 06/12).

Instructions for Internment

Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC05612

Support for study of Invisible Man

TR explaining why he cannot in good faith become a Democrat.

A very polite order to Japanese-Americans to report in an 'orderly' fashion to find out how to evacuate areas of San Francisco. Slap a Star of David on them while they're at it! It's not a far cry from what happened to Jews in Nazi Germany, except for the polite manner in which they were instructed to leave their homes.

Attached is a lesson I use with my 7th grade American History class.

Site to be used for school wide presidential election.

This three-lesson set on the Women’s Liberation Movement utilizes women’s music as primary source material to explore how self-actualization, political activism, and lesbianism played pivotal roles in helping women achieve equal status in American society. The lesson set includes an overview introduction, lesson objectives, song lyrics and accompanying weblinks, a variety of classroom activities and discussion questions, connections to comparative materials including magazine articles, photographs, and films, as well as supplemental resources including a list of achievers, websites, books, films, and a timeline.

In this lesson 5th grade students analyze two political cartoons related to school desegregation and the resistance of southern schools in Virginia by closing schools down. This web link includes a video demonstrating how the teacher introduces the lesson, copies of the two cartoons, and graphic organizers to help students record notes as they think critically about these primary sources. I would pair students in this activity and then discuss results as part of a study of the civil rights movement in 50's and 60's.

I will arrive at LAX Sunday, July 15, at 12:02 pm. I would love to share a ride to Irvine. My email is:

Thank you. Tito Craige

This is a lesson I taught this year for my sixth grade social studies class. I teach ancient history and so the lesson asks students to research an Egyptian pharaoh and then write a persuasive speech explaining why their pharaoh should be elected pharaoh of Egypt.

This is a lesson that I got from that I used to further my lessons on the civil war and tweaked a bit for my own use. I added some literacy strategies and a good AVID strategy and built on their prior knowledge.

This is a great document simply for the way that Wallace claims that he has done so much for Negros. Hindsight allows us to see through his rhetoric, but he believed that the way things were was fine and acceptable.
I would just do a simple evaluation of the document and discussion of students' thoughts and reactions. This document can also be used in connection with other speeches of Wallace such as his rejection of Civil Rights

Inquiries for letter:
Explain what you think Wallace means when he says that there is no material on segregation.

Evaluate the claims made by Wallace concerning how he has helped Negro citizens. Explain whether these claims support or disprove the existence of segregation.

Who do you think Wallace is referring to when he talks about people from other areas?

Explain whether you believe that Wallace is right in claiming that issues with segregation only come from outside agitation?

Martin Luther King's Letter From a Birmingham Jail gains power and significance when read after the letter from the eight Alabama clergy, published in the Birmingham News, that King was responding to. The letters, taken together, illustrate the division, even among clergy, on the struggle for civil rights for African Americans.

As a primary source, we'd use King's speech at Yale in 1959, found on the Gilder-Lehrman primary source list. In it, King outlines what he called the three periods of race relations in America. However, only two-thirds of the letter can be found; King outlining the first two periods in race relations (pre-emanciaption (1619-1863) & resticted emancipation, respecitvely (1863-1954)). For the activity, students are broken into smaller groups. After reading the letter as a class, each group has two tasks.

1. Outline two examples for each of King's race relations periods. Describe events that took place during each period and why he seperates the periods in those specific years.

2. Complete the letter on King's behalf, based on these questions:
A.) What about 1954 marks the end of "restricted emancipation?"
B.) What title would King give to the post 1954 race relations setting?
C.) How would he describe the third period? Think about actions, rhetoric and sentiments.
D.) When does the third period end?
E.) What is the outcome of the third period?
This essay regarding women and the struggles that have shaped the movement over the past many years is really meaningful to me. Now, Planned Parenthood is again in the news and coming under fire from some radical groups who believe it is just a quick response to an unwanted pregnancy. In truth, the statistics show that there are less than 10% of abortions performed nationally through this service.Planned Parenthood provides basic care for many women who are unable to afford care. David Gergen also reminded the audience at a recent spring luncheon in San Antonio, that his Harvard students are often away from home for the first time when they arrive at the university, and the organization fills an important need in providing services. We've come a long way, but we have a long way to go, especially since we need to guard against misrepresentation, misinformation, and just plain old ignorance. The battle is ongoing.

Governor George Wallace's 1963 inauguration speech, from which I've selected excerpts (to whittle it from 5 to 3 pages) could be used in conjuction with his 1964 letter to Pamela Martin, in which he claims segregation has never been a problem other than a few "isolated incidents". (The letter can be accessed at

Usually, I'll send documents like this home for students to annotate in preparation for a Socratic seminar. Students know their participation grade is threefold for those activities in my class (writing/speaking/evaluation) so most prepare in an effort to obtain the maximum points.

After reading and discussing these documents, one could then ask students to compile a list of "isolated incidents" that occurred within the state of Alabama before Wallace wrote the letter in April of 1964. (I'm treating this discussion as a culminating activity of sorts.) I would expect the desegregation of the U. of Alabama, Birmingham's children's crusade and other demonstrations to arise in our discussion; in fact, the scope would probably broaden to include events in other states (like the shooting of Medgar Evers).

To culminate, I would ask students to, in the guise of Pamela Martin, write a response to the Governor's letter detailing her views of segregation based on these events.

Thanks for looking into this sue. I arrive around 9:00 am, so am flexible. I will have my cell with me 9702174794.

Dear Glenn

How far do we go in tolerating these people & this trash under the excuse of academic freedom & freedom of expression? Please understand, that question isn’t made in any tone of accusation. I mean myself too in that use of the term ‘we.’

We wouldn’t let a LeRoi Jones in our livingroom and we wouldn’t tolerate this kind of language in front of our families. Hasn’t the time come to take on those neurotics in our faculty group and lay down some rules of conduct for the students comparable to what we’d expect in our own families? If we do and the ‘we’ this time means you’d have all the backing I could give you, I believe the people of Calif. would take the state college system to their hearts.

[Illegible] Ron


[1] Ronald Reagan, “The Morality Gap at Berkeley,” speech at Cow Palace, May 12, 1966, in The Creative Society, 125–129


1. Message From Chairman Khrushchev to President-elect Kennedy

Moscow, November 9, 1960.

//Source: American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1960, p. 476. No classification marking.

ESTEEMED MR. KENNEDY, Allow me to congratulate you on the occasion of your election to the high post of the President of the United States.

We hope that while you are at this post the relations between our countries would again follow the line along which they were developing in Franklin Roosevelt's time, which would meet the basic interests not only of the peoples of the U.S.S.R. and the United States but all mankind which is longing for deliverance from the threat of a new war.

I think you will agree that the eyes of many people are fixed on the United States and the Soviet Union because the destinies of world peace depend largely on the state of Soviet-American relations.

We have declared and declare our respect for the peaceable and gifted people of the United States and we are ready to develop the most friendly relations between the Soviet and the American peoples, between the Governments of the U.S.S.R. and the United States.

We are convinced that there are no insurmountable obstacles to the preservation and consolidation of peace.

For the sake of this goal we are ready, for our part, to continue efforts to solve such a pressing problem as disarmament, to settle the German issue through the earliest conclusion of a peace treaty and to reach agreement on other questions, the solution of which could bring about an easing and improvement of the entire international situation.

Any steps in this direction will always meet with the full understanding and support of the Soviet Government.

I wish you fruitful activity in the responsible capacity of United States President and prosperity to the American people./1/

/1/Printed from an unsigned copy.

2. Message From President-elect Kennedy to Chairman Khrushchev

November 10, 1960.

//Source: American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1960, p. 476. No classification marking.

I am most appreciative of your courtesy in sending me a message of congratulations./1/ The achievement of a just and lasting peace will remain a fundamental goal of this nation and a major task of its President. I am most pleased to have your good wishes at this time./2/

/1/Document 1.

/2/Printed from an unsigned copy.

3. Message From Chairmen Khrushchev and Brezhnev to President Kennedy

Moscow, January 20, 1961.

//Source: Department of State, Presidential Correspondence: Lot 66 D 204. No classification marking. The source text is a Department of State translation of a commercial telegram from Moscow. Another copy of this message is in the Kennedy Library, National Security Files, Countries Series, USSR, Khrushchev Correspondence. This message is also printed in Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1961, p. 3, and American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1961, p. 559.

DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: We congratulate you on the occasion of your inauguration. Availing ourselves of this opportunity we wish to express the hope that by our joint efforts we shall succeed in achieving a fundamental improvement in relations between our countries and a normalization of the whole international situation. We are convinced that, step by step, it will be possible to remove existing suspicion and distrust and cultivate seeds of friendship and practical cooperation between our peoples. On its side the Soviet Government is always ready to support any good undertakings in this direction and do everything in its power in order that durable peace may be established in the world, so that all nations may live in friendship and without enmity.

N. Khrushchev
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR

L. Brezhnev
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR

New Orleans Citizens Council

Don’t Buy A Ford Ever Again. From the New Orleans Citizens Council: To All White Citizens.

Zoom Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC08259
Author/Creator: New Orleans Citizens Council
Type: Broadside
Date: circa 1960
Summary of Content: Racist New Orleans broadside promoting a boycott of Ford Motor Co.’s support of the Civil Rights movement.
Historical Era: 1945 to the Present
Keywords/Subjects: segregation
Sub Era: The Civil Rights Movement, The Sixties
LOC Search Terms: Ford Motor Company., Automobile industry and trade--Social aspects--United States., Social responsibility of business--United States., Industries--Social aspects--United States., Corporations--Charitable contributions--United States., White supremacy movements--Louisiana--New Orleans., White Citizens councils--Louisiana--New Orleans., Boycotts--Louisiana--New Orleans., Race discrimination--Louisiana--New Orleans., Discrimination--Louisiana--New Orleans., Racism--Louisiana--New Orleans., Race relations., New Orleans (La.)--Race relations--History--20th century., Segregation--Louisiana--New Orleans., Civil rights--United States., Civil rights movements--Louisiana--New Orleans.,

Don’t Buy a Ford Ever Again, ca. 1960 Citizens Council of Greater New Orleans

“Don’t Buy A Ford Ever Again” broadside, c. 1960. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)New Orleans in 1960 was sharply divided over the practice of segregation. The schools were ordered to desegregate, which angered many white people. Members of the Citizens’ Council of Greater New Orleans believed that large companies such as the Ford Motor Company supported efforts to bring about integration in the United States. To influence the policies of such businesses, the Citizens’ Council organized boycotts of the companies’ products. This poster calls on “all white citizens” to stop buying Ford cars and trucks in order to “dry up at least one source of the money that is being used to destroy our Southern way of life.”.




and other Ford Products

For years and years a considerable portion of the profits from the sale of Ford cars, trucks, and other Ford products have been funneled into tax free foundations. MILLIONS and MILLIONS and MILLIONS of dollars of Ford profits have been distributed to integration and civil rights organizations to fight the white people of the SOUTH, by forcing them to associate with negroes.

It is time to dry up at least one source of the money that is being used to destroy our Southern way of life.


For additional copies of this circular, write
309 Delta Building New Orleans Louisiana 70112

Questions for Discussion
Read the document introduction and the excerpt and view the poster. Then apply your knowledge of American history in order to answer the questions that follow.

1.Examine the poster. Why were some people so angry at the Ford Company?
2.Why was the poster addressed “To All White Citizens”?
3.Describe the impact this poster could have on sales of Ford products?

Before the students read/answer the questions which were above, I would ask them to read through the document and give their initial impressions of what it is revealing about the culture of the 1960s in New Orleans?
Why would a white person create a poster such as this?
Do you think that many white people in New Orleans would be influenced by this? Would they boycott Ford?
How would you feel if you were an African American and reading this poster?
Would this boycott of Ford be as successful as the Montgomery Bus Boycott which the African Americans carried out? Why/why not?
Would African Americans be able to offset the effects of this boycott of Ford by only buying Fords themselves? Why/Why not?
What would be the reaction today if a boycott such as this were to be promoted? Why would it be different from the reaction of the 1960s?
This is a great poster to generate much discussion about segregation and how entrenched it was in the South in the 1960s. It is also a way to show how economically the white people would have more power in this situation. More white people could afford to buy new cars than African Americans could.
This is also a great poster to use to build empathy for African Americans in that time period and the anger and frustration they must have felt at the discrimination which they faced on a daily basis.

I chose this because I teach at a predominantly white school in the suburbs outside Cincinnati. Many of my students are clueless as to the massive extremes the white people in the South would go to to preserve the status quo.

This is a letter to Grayson Kirk, President of Columbia University, from Mark Rudd. Rudd was the Chairman of the SDS at Columbia University in 1968 and wrote this letter in respose to a speech given by Kirk at University of Virginia on April 12, 1968.

Attorney General Robert Kennedy was a voacl supporter of civil rights. In the attached 1963 letter he outlines the state of civil rights to his brother, President John Kennedy. It is broken into various areas: voting, transportation, schools, employment, and other areas.
This makes it a perfect background document to use as a class jigsaw project. Breaking the class into five (5) small groups with each reporting their section to the class will make this five (5) page document a useful teaching tool.
I especially like the ending quote Kennedy uses from Georgia Governor Carl E. Sanders. In his inaugural address Governor Sanders says, "We believe in law and order and in the principle that all laws apply equally to all citizens."

Attorney General Robert Kennedy was a voacl supporter of civil rights. In the attached 1963 letter he outlines the state of civil rights to his brother, President John Kennedy. It is broken into various areas: voting, transportation, schools, employment, and other areas.
This makes it a perfect background document to use as a class jigsaw project. Breaking the class into five (5) small groups with each reporting their section to the class will make this five (5) page document a useful teaching tool.
I especially like the ending quote Kennedy uses from Georgia Governor Carl E. Sanders. In his inaugural address Governor Sanders says, "We believe in law and order and in the principle that all laws apply equally to all citizens."