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Site to be used for school wide presidential election.

This three-lesson set on the Women’s Liberation Movement utilizes women’s music as primary source material to explore how self-actualization, political activism, and lesbianism played pivotal roles in helping women achieve equal status in American society. The lesson set includes an overview introduction, lesson objectives, song lyrics and accompanying weblinks, a variety of classroom activities and discussion questions, connections to comparative materials including magazine articles, photographs, and films, as well as supplemental resources including a list of achievers, websites, books, films, and a timeline.

In this lesson 5th grade students analyze two political cartoons related to school desegregation and the resistance of southern schools in Virginia by closing schools down. This web link includes a video demonstrating how the teacher introduces the lesson, copies of the two cartoons, and graphic organizers to help students record notes as they think critically about these primary sources. I would pair students in this activity and then discuss results as part of a study of the civil rights movement in 50's and 60's.

I will arrive at LAX Sunday, July 15, at 12:02 pm. I would love to share a ride to Irvine. My email is:

Thank you. Tito Craige

This is a lesson I taught this year for my sixth grade social studies class. I teach ancient history and so the lesson asks students to research an Egyptian pharaoh and then write a persuasive speech explaining why their pharaoh should be elected pharaoh of Egypt.

This is a lesson that I got from that I used to further my lessons on the civil war and tweaked a bit for my own use. I added some literacy strategies and a good AVID strategy and built on their prior knowledge.

This is a great document simply for the way that Wallace claims that he has done so much for Negros. Hindsight allows us to see through his rhetoric, but he believed that the way things were was fine and acceptable.
I would just do a simple evaluation of the document and discussion of students' thoughts and reactions. This document can also be used in connection with other speeches of Wallace such as his rejection of Civil Rights

Inquiries for letter:
Explain what you think Wallace means when he says that there is no material on segregation.

Evaluate the claims made by Wallace concerning how he has helped Negro citizens. Explain whether these claims support or disprove the existence of segregation.

Who do you think Wallace is referring to when he talks about people from other areas?

Explain whether you believe that Wallace is right in claiming that issues with segregation only come from outside agitation?

Martin Luther King's Letter From a Birmingham Jail gains power and significance when read after the letter from the eight Alabama clergy, published in the Birmingham News, that King was responding to. The letters, taken together, illustrate the division, even among clergy, on the struggle for civil rights for African Americans.

As a primary source, we'd use King's speech at Yale in 1959, found on the Gilder-Lehrman primary source list. In it, King outlines what he called the three periods of race relations in America. However, only two-thirds of the letter can be found; King outlining the first two periods in race relations (pre-emanciaption (1619-1863) & resticted emancipation, respecitvely (1863-1954)). For the activity, students are broken into smaller groups. After reading the letter as a class, each group has two tasks.

1. Outline two examples for each of King's race relations periods. Describe events that took place during each period and why he seperates the periods in those specific years.

2. Complete the letter on King's behalf, based on these questions:
A.) What about 1954 marks the end of "restricted emancipation?"
B.) What title would King give to the post 1954 race relations setting?
C.) How would he describe the third period? Think about actions, rhetoric and sentiments.
D.) When does the third period end?
E.) What is the outcome of the third period?
This essay regarding women and the struggles that have shaped the movement over the past many years is really meaningful to me. Now, Planned Parenthood is again in the news and coming under fire from some radical groups who believe it is just a quick response to an unwanted pregnancy. In truth, the statistics show that there are less than 10% of abortions performed nationally through this service.Planned Parenthood provides basic care for many women who are unable to afford care. David Gergen also reminded the audience at a recent spring luncheon in San Antonio, that his Harvard students are often away from home for the first time when they arrive at the university, and the organization fills an important need in providing services. We've come a long way, but we have a long way to go, especially since we need to guard against misrepresentation, misinformation, and just plain old ignorance. The battle is ongoing.

Governor George Wallace's 1963 inauguration speech, from which I've selected excerpts (to whittle it from 5 to 3 pages) could be used in conjuction with his 1964 letter to Pamela Martin, in which he claims segregation has never been a problem other than a few "isolated incidents". (The letter can be accessed at

Usually, I'll send documents like this home for students to annotate in preparation for a Socratic seminar. Students know their participation grade is threefold for those activities in my class (writing/speaking/evaluation) so most prepare in an effort to obtain the maximum points.

After reading and discussing these documents, one could then ask students to compile a list of "isolated incidents" that occurred within the state of Alabama before Wallace wrote the letter in April of 1964. (I'm treating this discussion as a culminating activity of sorts.) I would expect the desegregation of the U. of Alabama, Birmingham's children's crusade and other demonstrations to arise in our discussion; in fact, the scope would probably broaden to include events in other states (like the shooting of Medgar Evers).

To culminate, I would ask students to, in the guise of Pamela Martin, write a response to the Governor's letter detailing her views of segregation based on these events.

Thanks for looking into this sue. I arrive around 9:00 am, so am flexible. I will have my cell with me 9702174794.

Dear Glenn

How far do we go in tolerating these people & this trash under the excuse of academic freedom & freedom of expression? Please understand, that question isn’t made in any tone of accusation. I mean myself too in that use of the term ‘we.’

We wouldn’t let a LeRoi Jones in our livingroom and we wouldn’t tolerate this kind of language in front of our families. Hasn’t the time come to take on those neurotics in our faculty group and lay down some rules of conduct for the students comparable to what we’d expect in our own families? If we do and the ‘we’ this time means you’d have all the backing I could give you, I believe the people of Calif. would take the state college system to their hearts.

[Illegible] Ron


[1] Ronald Reagan, “The Morality Gap at Berkeley,” speech at Cow Palace, May 12, 1966, in The Creative Society, 125–129


1. Message From Chairman Khrushchev to President-elect Kennedy

Moscow, November 9, 1960.

//Source: American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1960, p. 476. No classification marking.

ESTEEMED MR. KENNEDY, Allow me to congratulate you on the occasion of your election to the high post of the President of the United States.

We hope that while you are at this post the relations between our countries would again follow the line along which they were developing in Franklin Roosevelt's time, which would meet the basic interests not only of the peoples of the U.S.S.R. and the United States but all mankind which is longing for deliverance from the threat of a new war.

I think you will agree that the eyes of many people are fixed on the United States and the Soviet Union because the destinies of world peace depend largely on the state of Soviet-American relations.

We have declared and declare our respect for the peaceable and gifted people of the United States and we are ready to develop the most friendly relations between the Soviet and the American peoples, between the Governments of the U.S.S.R. and the United States.

We are convinced that there are no insurmountable obstacles to the preservation and consolidation of peace.

For the sake of this goal we are ready, for our part, to continue efforts to solve such a pressing problem as disarmament, to settle the German issue through the earliest conclusion of a peace treaty and to reach agreement on other questions, the solution of which could bring about an easing and improvement of the entire international situation.

Any steps in this direction will always meet with the full understanding and support of the Soviet Government.

I wish you fruitful activity in the responsible capacity of United States President and prosperity to the American people./1/

/1/Printed from an unsigned copy.

2. Message From President-elect Kennedy to Chairman Khrushchev

November 10, 1960.

//Source: American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1960, p. 476. No classification marking.

I am most appreciative of your courtesy in sending me a message of congratulations./1/ The achievement of a just and lasting peace will remain a fundamental goal of this nation and a major task of its President. I am most pleased to have your good wishes at this time./2/

/1/Document 1.

/2/Printed from an unsigned copy.

3. Message From Chairmen Khrushchev and Brezhnev to President Kennedy

Moscow, January 20, 1961.

//Source: Department of State, Presidential Correspondence: Lot 66 D 204. No classification marking. The source text is a Department of State translation of a commercial telegram from Moscow. Another copy of this message is in the Kennedy Library, National Security Files, Countries Series, USSR, Khrushchev Correspondence. This message is also printed in Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1961, p. 3, and American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1961, p. 559.

DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: We congratulate you on the occasion of your inauguration. Availing ourselves of this opportunity we wish to express the hope that by our joint efforts we shall succeed in achieving a fundamental improvement in relations between our countries and a normalization of the whole international situation. We are convinced that, step by step, it will be possible to remove existing suspicion and distrust and cultivate seeds of friendship and practical cooperation between our peoples. On its side the Soviet Government is always ready to support any good undertakings in this direction and do everything in its power in order that durable peace may be established in the world, so that all nations may live in friendship and without enmity.

N. Khrushchev
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR

L. Brezhnev
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR

New Orleans Citizens Council

Don’t Buy A Ford Ever Again. From the New Orleans Citizens Council: To All White Citizens.

Zoom Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC08259
Author/Creator: New Orleans Citizens Council
Type: Broadside
Date: circa 1960
Summary of Content: Racist New Orleans broadside promoting a boycott of Ford Motor Co.’s support of the Civil Rights movement.
Historical Era: 1945 to the Present
Keywords/Subjects: segregation
Sub Era: The Civil Rights Movement, The Sixties
LOC Search Terms: Ford Motor Company., Automobile industry and trade--Social aspects--United States., Social responsibility of business--United States., Industries--Social aspects--United States., Corporations--Charitable contributions--United States., White supremacy movements--Louisiana--New Orleans., White Citizens councils--Louisiana--New Orleans., Boycotts--Louisiana--New Orleans., Race discrimination--Louisiana--New Orleans., Discrimination--Louisiana--New Orleans., Racism--Louisiana--New Orleans., Race relations., New Orleans (La.)--Race relations--History--20th century., Segregation--Louisiana--New Orleans., Civil rights--United States., Civil rights movements--Louisiana--New Orleans.,

Don’t Buy a Ford Ever Again, ca. 1960 Citizens Council of Greater New Orleans

“Don’t Buy A Ford Ever Again” broadside, c. 1960. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)New Orleans in 1960 was sharply divided over the practice of segregation. The schools were ordered to desegregate, which angered many white people. Members of the Citizens’ Council of Greater New Orleans believed that large companies such as the Ford Motor Company supported efforts to bring about integration in the United States. To influence the policies of such businesses, the Citizens’ Council organized boycotts of the companies’ products. This poster calls on “all white citizens” to stop buying Ford cars and trucks in order to “dry up at least one source of the money that is being used to destroy our Southern way of life.”.




and other Ford Products

For years and years a considerable portion of the profits from the sale of Ford cars, trucks, and other Ford products have been funneled into tax free foundations. MILLIONS and MILLIONS and MILLIONS of dollars of Ford profits have been distributed to integration and civil rights organizations to fight the white people of the SOUTH, by forcing them to associate with negroes.

It is time to dry up at least one source of the money that is being used to destroy our Southern way of life.


For additional copies of this circular, write
309 Delta Building New Orleans Louisiana 70112

Questions for Discussion
Read the document introduction and the excerpt and view the poster. Then apply your knowledge of American history in order to answer the questions that follow.

1.Examine the poster. Why were some people so angry at the Ford Company?
2.Why was the poster addressed “To All White Citizens”?
3.Describe the impact this poster could have on sales of Ford products?

Before the students read/answer the questions which were above, I would ask them to read through the document and give their initial impressions of what it is revealing about the culture of the 1960s in New Orleans?
Why would a white person create a poster such as this?
Do you think that many white people in New Orleans would be influenced by this? Would they boycott Ford?
How would you feel if you were an African American and reading this poster?
Would this boycott of Ford be as successful as the Montgomery Bus Boycott which the African Americans carried out? Why/why not?
Would African Americans be able to offset the effects of this boycott of Ford by only buying Fords themselves? Why/Why not?
What would be the reaction today if a boycott such as this were to be promoted? Why would it be different from the reaction of the 1960s?
This is a great poster to generate much discussion about segregation and how entrenched it was in the South in the 1960s. It is also a way to show how economically the white people would have more power in this situation. More white people could afford to buy new cars than African Americans could.
This is also a great poster to use to build empathy for African Americans in that time period and the anger and frustration they must have felt at the discrimination which they faced on a daily basis.

I chose this because I teach at a predominantly white school in the suburbs outside Cincinnati. Many of my students are clueless as to the massive extremes the white people in the South would go to to preserve the status quo.

This is a letter to Grayson Kirk, President of Columbia University, from Mark Rudd. Rudd was the Chairman of the SDS at Columbia University in 1968 and wrote this letter in respose to a speech given by Kirk at University of Virginia on April 12, 1968.

Attorney General Robert Kennedy was a voacl supporter of civil rights. In the attached 1963 letter he outlines the state of civil rights to his brother, President John Kennedy. It is broken into various areas: voting, transportation, schools, employment, and other areas.
This makes it a perfect background document to use as a class jigsaw project. Breaking the class into five (5) small groups with each reporting their section to the class will make this five (5) page document a useful teaching tool.
I especially like the ending quote Kennedy uses from Georgia Governor Carl E. Sanders. In his inaugural address Governor Sanders says, "We believe in law and order and in the principle that all laws apply equally to all citizens."

Attorney General Robert Kennedy was a voacl supporter of civil rights. In the attached 1963 letter he outlines the state of civil rights to his brother, President John Kennedy. It is broken into various areas: voting, transportation, schools, employment, and other areas.
This makes it a perfect background document to use as a class jigsaw project. Breaking the class into five (5) small groups with each reporting their section to the class will make this five (5) page document a useful teaching tool.
I especially like the ending quote Kennedy uses from Georgia Governor Carl E. Sanders. In his inaugural address Governor Sanders says, "We believe in law and order and in the principle that all laws apply equally to all citizens."

This is from the Center for Learning, it uses primary documents to get the students to look at the origins of the Cold war.

How did NSC-68 differ from Kennan's view of containment? For one, Kennan's emphasis on industrial-military power centers was thrown out the window - "In the context of the present polarization of power," argued NSC-68, "a defeat of free institutions anywhere is a defeat everywhere." Thus, NSC-68 committed America to unlimited objectives and to a "perimeter" defense (defending everywhere) rather than a "strongpoint" one (attacking where the enemy was weakest.) "

Trash and neurotic are two words that leap out of this letter. RR will soon win the election in a landslide. He'll win the election in 1980. Today he is revered by Republicans and many Democrats...In 2012 the Tea Party is on the rise and Liberals are on the run...It looks as if the Conservatives least for now.

TRs take on what the US required to become a world power. The speech also reflected the American spirit at the turn of the 19th to 20th century

Hi Monica,
I called and left a message on your voicemail on Sunday 6/24. Sharon and I spoke on Friday before she left for vacation until mid-July. We agreed that the 3 of us can share the cost of the car that she rented. I can tell you the rest of what we discussed when you and I talk. Please call me back at your convenience 510-435-9644. Regards, Jennifer

the Rise and Fall of an International Counter Culture

I agree. I have students address the content & symbolism on political, economic & social levels.

My flight doesn't get in until 2:20. Anyone else arriving around then?

I lived in LA for 16 years. UCLA is in a beautiful setting and the weather is ideal.

Three documents that can be used to discuss propaganda which targets US audience in 1953

It would be great to add pelham's Boston Massacre to this list

Professor Dan Lindley from Notre Dame developed this a few years ago and it is a wonderful overview for teachers .Everything there is to know about nuclear strategy can be learned from Dr Strangelove (mild overstatement)

Good discussion starter on first,second,and third worlds.Combibe the map with text of documents from
Chapter 11-Decolonization and Cold War (especially Bandung Speech 1955)

What was the significance of this brief encounter between US and Soviet soldiers?

Material to look at essential element of Chinese History in the 1960s

2 cartoons for a discussion for civilian control of the military

Puck cartoon critical of UN response to Suez Crisis while ignoring Soviet Actions in Eastern Europe

JFK's memo to LBJ on Space Program

Sharon and Jennifer,
I am glad we are arranging to carpool together from DC. I have a suggestion. Could we meet at Dulles? I don't mind waiting at the airport if you plan on sightseeing in DC. There isn't a subway system only ground transportation from Dulles into DC. The highway to Montpelier is half way between both airports. Airports are 29 miles apart(30 mins). Jennifer and I wouldn't have to drag luggage around or meet at another location. Possibly easier alternative. Sharon would need to do a little driving. Just let me know what you ladies think.

Talk to you soon.

I'm interested! I just saw this, so its short notice, my number is 702 306 7347.


Thanks!Since you and Pam, and others, would be arriving at noon of July 29, Yes, I'll just wait for you guys at CHO going to Montpelier. I'll still wait though for some new posters to share a ride for my return flight to CHO, anybody whose return flight to CHO, from 12:30pm to 3 pm, on the 4th of Aug. I would like to share a ride.

The Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) was established at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C., in 1991 with the generous support of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.

The Project supports the full and prompt release of historical materials by governments on all sides of the Cold War, and seeks to accelerate the process of integrating new sources, materials and perspectives from the former "Communist bloc" with the historiography of the Cold War which has been written over the past few decades largely by Western scholars reliant on Western archival sources. It also seeks to transcend barriers of language, geography, and regional specialization to create new links among scholars interested in Cold War history.

I seem to find myself back on schedule to be in Denver on time. I will be on the look out for the super shuttle group.

Hello everyone on the Super Shuttle. American Airlines has just pushed my flight back by about 5 hours. I'll miss my connection in Dallas and won't be in Denver until 7 pm. So please, don't wait for me, I'll find my way to Boulder later.

I'm coming from Newark- maybe we're on the same train. Sharing a cab would be great.

The Oregon Trail map works great on the Smartboard!

Manifest Destiny Lesson
This is a lesson I did this year with my 8th grade students. This was done after discussing basic information about Manifest Destiny. They also watched various clips about the War with Mexico from a video by the History Channel. The lesson utilized various primary and secondary sources of information related to Manifest Destiny.
Objective: Students will be able to evaluate the social and political effects of Manifest Destiny by completing a graphic organizer and completing a written summary of the effects.
I picked six student leaders to help teach each source. These leaders taught a group of 2-3 students that rotated through all six stations. Students had a graphic organizer to help keep notes. I also asked students to determine if the source was primary or secondary and if it was biased or objective. Each group also had 2 guiding questions to answer by discussing them with the group. The groups leaders monitored the group and provided prompts to help students if they were confuse. At the conclusion of the activity, each student completed a 2-3 paragraph written response which explained the social and political effects of Manifest Destiny. They can use their organizer and any other information learned during the teaching of Manifest Destiny.

Exclusion Laws:
Oregon Trail Interactive Map:
Mormon Trail

I also had students utilize a political cartoon about the Gold Rush, a recruitment poster from America during the War with Mexico, and a written account of the Chinese in San Francisco. I do not have these on digital format here, but could probably get them when I get back to Florida. I also have the organizer on my computer at school, but we came out to Colorado early. I can email them to anybody who wants a copy!

This is a great article--I'd love to be able to claim that gold-plated bugle! I think every war produces a unique body of music that allows an incredible insight into the psyche of civilization at that time. Hooray for the artists!


My return flight is 12:30 on the 4th. 8 pm is much later, so you may want to see if others have return flights closer in time to your own because CHO is a small airport and I know I would probably go crazy waiting for nearly half a day there! If you don't mind waiting you are welcome to join us.

I like to use this lesson (1-2 days) to introduce students to the 'problems of the big city', to reform efforts, and to work on primary source analysis. I generally 'sandwich' this lesson between lectures on the 'phenomenon' of urbanization (the 'what')on the front end and one on differing approaches to reform (the social gospel, the Gospel of Wealth, and governmental reforms--segwaying into Progressivism). I've used it with great success in both my 'regular' and AP US History classes. I especially like where this discussion generally trends in my classes into considering how documentary 'records' are inevitably shaped by the eyes of their creators (as Riis's photos obviously were).

Greg, I am interested too in joining /sharing the carpool fare and gas. It's alright with me to wait an hour or two at CHO, bec.I will be arriving at 9:50am. By the way, what time is your flight going back to Florida, since we are leaving Montpelier at 12:30pm of the 4th of Aug.bec. my flight going back to CA is around 8:00pm? Count me in. My email address is

Greg, I guess I can fit in with your schedule. I would like to join your group too in coming and going back to CHO. I'll just wait you guys at CHO on the 29th of July, bec. I'll be at CHO around 9:50am. Thanks!

I now have 5 of us with 5 pieces of checked luggage on the Super Shuttle reservation. Our new confirmation number is 5931004. The cost will be just under $17 per person, plus tip.
See you tomorrow,