Saddam Hussein (1937–2006) was the president of Iraq whose long reign was marked by brutality and war. Saddam came to power upon the resignation of President Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr in 1979, and he quickly established an oppressive and retaliatory rule. In 1980, he authorized the Iraqi invasion of Iran’s oil fields, and the resulting war would last until 1988. In 1990, Saddam authorized an invasion of Kuwait, but US and UN intervention drove Iraqi forces out of the country. As a result of the Persian Gulf War, the United Nations imposed strict prohibitions and sanctions on Iraq. In the 1990s, Saddam barred UN weapons inspectors from entering Iraq. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States pushed for renewal of the disarmament of Iraq, arguing that Saddam might provide anti-American terrorist groups with support. Saddam’s failure to completely comply with UN weapons investigations led the United States and Great Britain to end diplomacy toward Iraq. In March 2003, the United States began its war on Iraq, and Saddam went into hiding. He was captured in December 2003. Saddam was found guilty of crimes against humanity in an Iraqi court and executed in 2006.

Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History


Already have an account?

Please click here to login and access this page.

How to subscribe

Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits.

Otherwise, click here for information on a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students.

Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History


Become an Affiliate School to have free access to the Gilder Lehrman site and all its features.

Click here to start your Affiliate School application today! You will have free access while your application is being processed.

Individual K-12 educators and students can also get a free subscription to the site by making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. Click here to do so now!

Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History


Why Gilder Lehrman?

Your subscription grants you access to archives of rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and a wealth of original historical material, while also helping to support history education in schools nationwide. Click here to see the kinds of historical resources to which you'll have access and here to read more about the Institute's educational programs.

Individual subscription: $25

Click here to sign up for an individual subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site.

Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History


Upgrade your Account

We're sorry, but it looks as though you do not have access to the full Gilder Lehrman site.

All K-12 educators receive free subscriptions to the Gilder Lehrman site, and our Affiliate School members gain even more benefits!

How to Subscribe

K-12 educator or student? Click here to edit your profile and indicate this, giving you free access, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program.

Not a educator or student? Click here for more information on purchasing a subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site.

Related Site Content