by T.H. Breen

The Peace of Paris (February 10, 1763) marked a glorious moment in the history of the British Empire. France surrendered Canada, ending more than a century of warfare on the northern frontier. At the time, no one seriously thought that the conclusion of the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) would lead in little more than a decade to the creation of an independent state. Thomas Pownall, a respected commentator on economic affairs and former royal governor of Massachusetts, explained to British policy makers precisely why the Americans could never hope to form a government of their own. More »

Featured Primary Sources

Paul Revere, “The Bloody Massacre in King-Street, March 5, 1770.” Boston, 1770.

Paul Revere’s engraving of the Boston Massacre, 1770

Creator: Paul Revere Curriculum Subjects: Art, World History Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
King George III, Proclamation of 1763, 1763. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)

Proclamation of 1763, 1763

Creator: George III, King of Great Britain Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
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American Scripture: The Making of the Declaration of Independence

Speaker(s): Pauline Maier Duration: 37 minutes 27 seconds

Benjamin Franklin: An American Life

Speaker(s): Walter Isaacson Duration: 30 minutes 33 seconds

Jefferson as Revolutionary

Speaker(s): Frank Cogliano Duration: 36 minutes 58 seconds
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