Imperial Rivalries

The essays in this section have been written by leading scholars of American history. They provide additional depth on events and ideas referred to in the introductory essay and, in some cases, different interpretations by historians looking at the same events. These essays are particularly useful as informational texts to introduce your students to one of the most exciting aspects of studying history—understanding the past from a variety of perspectives.

England on the Eve of Colonization

Author: Paul E. J. Hammer Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Discovery of the Americas and the Transatlantic Slave Trade

Author: Ira Berlin Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:

Essays from Other Sub-Eras

A map from History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clark. (GLC)

America the Newcomer: Claiming the Louisiana Purchase

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Geography Grade Levels:

Conflict and Commerce: The Rise and Fall of New Netherland

Author: Simon Middleton Curriculum Subjects: Economics, World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Commissioner of Labor Statistics explains loss of wages since 1929. (LOC, P&P)

Economic Policy through the Lens of History

Author: Roger E. A. Farmer Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
 “Taboas geraes de toda a navegação” by João Teixeira Albernaz, 1630. (LOC Maps)

Iberian Roots of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1640

Author: David Wheat Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Magellan: Missing in Action

Author: Laurence Bergreen Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Literature, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Navigating the Age of Exploration

Author: Ted Widmer Curriculum Subjects: Geography, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The League of the Iroquois

Author: Matthew Dennis Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:

The Pueblo Revolt

Author: Edward Countryman Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:

A New Look at the Great Plains

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Geography Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+