The Nation of Islam is a religious movement and organization founded in 1930 that combines black nationalism with Islamic teachings. Advocating black unity and self-sufficiency, the Nation came to prominence with the rise of Malcolm X (Malcolm Little) during the civil rights era. As a leader of the Nation, Malcolm X criticized mainstream civil rights strategies of non-violence and civil disobedience. After Malcolm X’s estrangement from the Nation in 1964 and his assassination in 1965, the Nation split into various factions. In 1978, Nation leader Louis Farrakhan re-established the movement and worked to improve the lives of African Americans. His controversial views and racial rhetoric made it difficult for the Nation of Islam to shed its legacy of hate.

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