Industrialization - Changing Living Standards

Annual Food Consumption: German and American Workers' Families, 1900 (in kilograms)

 

Bread

Potatoes

Meat

Butter

Eggs

Sugar

Germany

582

647

112

20

612

31

U.S.

113

376

382

53

1,022

121

 

Living Standards

Percentage with

Families in 1900

Poor families in 1970

Flush toilets

15

99

Running water

24

92

Central heating

1

58

One (or fewer) occupants per room

48

96

Electricity

3

99

Refrigeration

18

99

Automobiles

1

41

 

Family Expenditures

 

1888-91

1901

1950

Income

$573 (1)

$651 (2)

$4,229

Food

$219

$266

$1,335

Housing

$80

$112

$448

Fuel

$32

$35

$153

Clothing

$82

$80

$473

Sundries

$44

$124

$1,667

 

(1) $1,793 in 1950 dollars
(2) $1,914 in 1950 dollars

 

Per Capita Food Consumption (in pounds per year)

 

Beef

Pork

Lard

Butter

Fresh Fruit

Potatoes

1900

72

72

13

20

n.a.

n.a.

1920

67

64

12

15

145

140

1940

62

74

14

17

142

123

1960

93

61

9

8

98

105

 

 

Canned
Vegetables

Frozen
Vegetables

Ice
Cream

1900

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

1920

18.5

n.a.

7.6

1940

34.4

0.4

11.4

1960

44

7.5

17.9

 

Questions for Discussion

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