Immigration and Migration

The essays in this section have been written by leading scholars of American history. They provide additional depth on events and ideas referred to in the introductory essay and, in some cases, different interpretations by historians looking at the same events. These essays are particularly useful in introducing your students to one of the most exciting aspects of studying history—understanding the past from a variety of perspectives.

Detail from a World War I poster. (GLC09522)

Why Immigration Matters

Author: Thomas Kessner Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Immigration and Migration

Author: Hasia Diner Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Imperial Rivalries

Author: Peter C. Mancall Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

National Expansion and Reform, 1815–1860

Author: Joyce Appleby Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8
Abolitionist flag, ca. 1859. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)

Abolition and Antebellum Reform

Author: Ronald G. Walters Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Thomas Clarkson, The History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment . . .

African Immigration to Colonial America

Author: Ira Berlin Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:

American Indians

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Economics, World History Grade Levels: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
A Vindication of the Character and Public Services of Andrew Jackson, 1828 (GLC)

Andrew Jackson’s Shifting Legacy

Author: Daniel Feller Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Reader in a cigar factory, Tampa, Fla., by Lewis Wickes Hines (LOC)

Bridging the Caribbean: Puerto Rican Roots in Nineteenth-Century America

Author: Virginia Sanchez Korrol Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Cahokia: A Pre-Columbian American City

Author: Timothy R. Pauketat Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9
Landing at Ellis Island, ca. 1902 (LC-USZ62-12595)

Coming to America: Ellis Island and New York City

Author: Vincent J. Cannato Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
GLC04315

Early America’s Jewish Settlers

Author: Eli Faber Curriculum Subjects: Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:
Detail from a Harper’s Weekly cartoon by Thomas Nast, February 26, 1870. (LOC)

Education Reform in Antebellum America

Author: Barbara Winslow Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:
Notice of relocation for Persons of Japanese Ancestry, 1942. (Gilder Lehrman C

From Citizen to Enemy: The Tragedy of Japanese Internment

Author: Julie Des Jardins Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Family in Chinatown, San Francisco, CA. (LC-G4085- 0192 <P&P>)

History Times: A Nation of Immigrants

Author: Gilder Lehrman Institute Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
“A View of the Town of Boston,” by Paul Revere, 1770, detail. (GLC02873)

History Times: The Colonial Era

Author: Gilder Lehrman Institute Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 2, 3, 4, 5
 “Taboas geraes de toda a navegação” by João Teixeira Albernaz, 1630. (LOC Maps)

Iberian Roots of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1640

Author: David Wheat Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Oath of Allegiance of Mikael Amerikian, 1931 (NARA ARC # 595054)

Immigrant Fiction: Exploring an American Identity

Author: Phillip Lopate Curriculum Subjects: Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Indian Removal

Author: Theda Perdue Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics Grade Levels:

Indian Slavery in the Americas

Author: Alan Gallay Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Jamestown and the Founding of English America

Author: James Horn Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Assembly room for chassis and motors, Detroit, MI, 1929 (LOC, P&P)

Motor City: The Story of Detroit

Author: Thomas J. Sugrue Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Native American Discoveries of Europe

Author: Daniel K. Richter Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Navigating the Age of Exploration

Author: Ted Widmer Curriculum Subjects: Geography, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Louis Armstrong, 1953 (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division)

New Orleans and the History of Jazz

Author: Loren Schoenberg Curriculum Subjects: Art, Geography Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
The front of the Alamo, 1922. (LC-USZ62-87798)

Remembering the Alamo

Author: Char Miller Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Patent signed by James Buchanan, May 28, 1846. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)

Technology of the 1800s

Author: Brent D. Glass Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Americas to 1620

Author: Christopher L. Miller Curriculum Subjects: Geography, World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Civil Rights Movement: Major Events and Legacies

Author: James T. Patterson Curriculum Subjects: Art, Government and Civics, Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Photograph of American Indians by William Hicks Jackson, 1871. (GLC03095.97)

The Civil War and Reconstruction in the American West

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Columbian Exchange

Author: Alfred Crosby Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math, World History Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Discovery of the Americas and the Transatlantic Slave Trade

Author: Ira Berlin Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:
Breadline in New York, ca. 1930. (Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Div.)

The Great Depression: An Overview

Author: David M. Kennedy Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Indian peace medal, 1829. (GLC02772.02)

The Indian Removal Act

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Proclamation of 1763 (GLC05214)

The Indians’ War of Independence

Author: Colin G. Calloway Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Destruction of the statue of George III in New York, 1776. (GLC)

The Invention of the Fourth of July

Author: David Waldstreicher Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Union Stock Yards, Chicago, 1903. (LC-USZ62-51793)

The Jungle and the Progressive Era

Author: Robert W. Cherny Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Letterhead from Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, 1910, detail. (GLC)

The Myth of the Frontier: Progress or Lost Freedom

Author: John Mack Faragher Curriculum Subjects: Art, Economics, Geography, Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Girls working in a box factory, Tampa FL, by Lewis Hine, ca. 1912 (NARA 523166)

The Rise of Industrial America, 1877-1900

Author: Richard White Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, 1846. (GLC05117)

The Slave Narratives: A Genre and a Source

Author: David W. Blight Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Panorama of Chicago, ca. 1906, Universale View Co., Philadelphia, PA (LOC)

The Transnational Nature of the Progressive Era

Author: Daniel T. Rodgers Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Eliza Crossing the Ice from a scarf of scenes from Uncle Tom's Cabin. (GLC06894)

Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Matter of Influence

Author: Hollis Robbins Curriculum Subjects: Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
George Washington to Sir John Sinclair, December 11, 1796. (GLC08095p12)

Washington Encourages a Prospective Immigrant: The Economic Potential of the States in 1796

Author: Mary-Jo Kline, Theodore J. Crackel Curriculum Subjects: Geography Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Athletic Sports, 1887. (Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Div.)

Why Sports History Is American History

Author: Mark Naison Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Justice of the Plains: The Movement Westward, John S. Curry (LC-DIG-highsm-02850

Women of the West

Author: Virginia Scharff Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

A New Look at the Great Plains

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Geography Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+