- ›› Coverage Geographical : Brazil
If one says “American Revolution” in the United States today, it is assumed that what is being...
Though most research on Africans’ involuntary migration to the Americas focuses on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the roots of the transatlantic slave trade are much deeper, stretching back to Iberia (Spain and Portugal), Atlantic Africa, and Latin America during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
Colonial America’s Jewish population offers a good case study of how original plans often went awry, though undoubtedly in the case of the Jews in large part to their satisfaction, rather than to their dismay and disappointment. The history of the Jewish people on the North American mainland dates to 1654, when a small band of twenty-three men, women, and children made landfall at New Amsterdam on the southern edge of Manhattan Island.
Glossary Term – Event
The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 moved the boundary between Spanish and Portuguese lands in the New World. The line of demarcation established a year earlier by the pope’s papal bull Inter Caetera shifted 1,000 miles westward, with the result that Brazil (when it was discovered) came under Portuguese control.
Glossary Term – Person
Though born in the Republic of Florence (Italy), like many others from the trading city-states on the Mediterranean, Vespucci (1451–1512) became a mariner and explorer for another country. While in the employ of the Medici family of bankers, he was sent to work in the family’s bank in Spain. While there he came to the attention of King Manuel I of Portugal, who hired him to be an observer on several voyages to explore the portion of the Americas acquired through the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. Several published accounts of these voyages...
Imperial rivalries have often been resolved through war; however, the Treaty of Tordesillas is an important example of a rivalry that was resolved without hostilities through the demarcation of areas of influence by the Catholic Church. The Treaty of Tordesillas successfully arbitrated which lands could be ruled by Spain and which could be ruled by Portugal by creating a boundary “three hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands.” This line ran from the North to South Poles....
Of the 10 to 16 million Africans who survived the voyage to the New World, over one-third landed in Brazil and between 60 and 70 percent ended up in Brazil or the sugar colonies of the Caribbean. Only 6 percent arrived in what is now the United States. Yet by 1860, approximately two thirds of all New World slaves lived in the American South.
For a long time it was widely assumed that southern slavery was harsher and crueler than slavery in Latin America, where the Catholic church insisted that slaves had a right to marry, to seek...