Marco Polo, with his father and uncle, spent years traversing the Silk Road. During their travels, the Polos gained both great wealth and knowledge of Central Asia and the Middle East that allowed Marco to publish his memoirs of his extensive travels, A Description of the World, in 1298. The book was of great interest to European traders and explorers.
President Rutherford B. Hayes vetoed a Congressional bill restricting Chinese immigration on the basis that it violated the 1868 Burlingame Treaty, which provided for unrestricted Chinese immigration into the United States.
At the Washington Naval Conference, the United States, Britain, France, Italy, Japan, China, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Belgium signed an agreement recognizing China’s sovereignty and maintaining the Open Door policy.
The People’s Liberation Army, led by Communist leader Mao Zedong, ousted Chiang Kai-Shek’s Nationalist government in China. Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, and Nationalist forces and sympathizers were forced to retreat to Taiwan.
Richard Nixon became the first US president to visit the People’s Republic of China when he traveled there for one week in 1972. During his visit, Nixon met with Mao Zedong and other Chinese officials. The trip proved a success when China agreed to establish full diplomatic relations with the US.
The United States and the People’s Republic of China officially established diplomatic relations. The United States declared that it “recognizes the People’s Republic of China as the sole legal government of China.”
The Group of Eight (or G-8 Nations) is the organization of leading inudstrialized nations (the US, Canada, China, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan) that holds periodic meetings to discuss political and economic issues that affect its members and the global community. The G-8 Nation meetings have met with intense scrutiny and protest from anti-globalization protestors as well as environmentalists and human-rights activists.