Members of the militant American Indian Movement staged an armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, the site of a massacre of Lakota Indians at the hands of the US Army in 1890. The occupiers were led by Russell Means and Dennis Banks. They declared an independent Sioux nation and held the area for seventy-one days, surrendering after an AIM member was shot and killed by federal authorities.
Crazy Horse (1849–1877) was a Lakota leader who battled white settlement in the Black Hills of Dakota. In 1876, Crazy Horse fought at Little Bighorn, the battle initiated by American Lieutenant Colonel George Custer. In 1877, he was killed while resisting capture and imprisonment.