The US Constitution assigns no duties or responsibilities to the president’s spouse. Every woman had to define for herself the role she wanted to play. From the blank slate that Martha Washington encountered in 1789, the job gradually grew, as she and her successors shaped it.
If you ask most people about the history of women and the United States Supreme Court, they are likely to point to the historic nomination of Sandra Day O’Connor as the first female justice, in 1981. That is a watershed moment in our nation’s history. But in order to fully understand the relationship of women to the United States Supreme Court, we must reach back much further. This story begins, as all stories about American history inevitably do, during the colonial period.
In November of 1936, a young man named Robert Johnson traveled from Mississippi to San Antonio, Texas, for his first recording session with the American Record Corporation. His music was a potent fusion of older styles learned from local musicians in the rural Delta and Memphis with the latest sounds on records, radio, and jukeboxes.
Following more than a year of diplomatic conflict between the US and Panama, US military forces invaded Panama. The invasion was widely condemned by the international community, but President Bush justified the action as a measure to protect American citizens in Panama, fight Panamanian drug trafficking, protect the neutrality of the Panama Canal, remove General Manuel Noriega, and restore democratic government.