Chancellor of the Exchequer Charles Townshend imposed new duties on imports of glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea in the colonies. The Townshend Acts also expanded the customs service. Revenue from the acts paid the salaries of colonial governors and judges, preventing colonial legislatures from exercising the power of the purse over those officials.
British Parliament enacted the Port Act in reprisal for the Boston Tea Party in March 1774. The first of the “Intolerable Acts,” the Port Act closed Boston harbor to all shipping until payment for the destroyed tea was made. In May, two additional “Intolerable Acts” forbade public meetings in Massachusetts unless sanctioned by the royal governor and transferred any trial of a British official accused of a capital offense to England or another colony.