Before the coming of Europeans, the Great Plains saw the rise and passing of dozens of cultures. Through trial and error, the peoples who were part of these cultures adapted to a varied environment and to one of the most dangerously erratic climates in North America.
Unaware of a peace treaty signed two weeks earlier, General Andrew Jackson stopped a British attack at the Battle of New Orleans. British forces suffered 2,036 casualties; US forces suffered eight men killed and thirteen wounded.
In Shays’ Rebellion, Massachusetts farmers, faced with high taxes, eviction, and imprisonment for debt, attacked the Springfield arsenal. While the rebellion was eventually put down by state militia, it also helped make clear the need for a stronger central government capable of protecting democratic institutions.