Having refused to join the League of Nations and ratify the Treaty of Versailles, the United States ratified separate peace treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary to officially end its involvement in World War I.
As part of the Second Battle of the Marne, American forces under Gen. John Pershing teamed with the French to earn a key victory at Château-Thierry. The Allied forces executed a surprise early morning counterattack on the Germans, suffering major casualties but gaining important ground.
Allied forces under American Gen. John Pershing began the Saint-Mihiel offensive on September 12. The Allies successfully pushed the Germans out of the Saint-Mihiel salient in France, opening rail communications between Paris and portions of the eastern front and demoralizing German forces.
Named for its first meeting place at Niagara Falls, New York, the Niagara Movement formed as an organized response to Booker T. Washington’s policies of accommodation and conciliation. Led by W. E. B. Du Bois, the Niagara Movement aimed to counteract Washington’s influence over the black community and in its manifesto declared its intention to “claim for ourselves every single right that belongs to a freeborn American, political, civil and social.”