Four black college students from the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College staged the first of the Civil Rights Movement’s sit-ins. The students sat down at a Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, and attempted to order but were refused service. The sit-in movement grew to more than 140 cities. Participants faced harassment, violence, and arrest in their attempts to integrate public lunch counters.
In Cooper v. Aaron, the Supreme Court ruled that the governor and legislature of Arkansas were bound by the court’s Brown v. Board of Education ruling. The case affirmed the Supreme Court’s rulings and interpretation of the US Constitution as the “supreme law of the land.”
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was organized in 1960. Formed around the sit-in movement, the SNCC was committed to non-violence, using sit-ins as well as voter registration drives and freedom rides to agitate for civil rights.
The Dixiecrat Party—or States’ Rights Democratic Party—was formed in 1948 by southern members of the Democratic Party who objected to the civil rights plank of the party platform. In the 1948 presidential election, the Dixiecrats nominated South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond, who carried four states and thirty-nine electoral votes.
Sarah Parker Remond (ca. 1826–1894) was an abolitionist, orator, and, later, a medical doctor. Born in Massachusetts to free parents, Remond was the sister of Charles Lenox Remond, a well-known black abolitionist. Though not as famous as her brother, Sarah Parker Remond was also active in the anti-slavery movement, lecturing with her brother and others, including Susan B. Anthony. She also embarked on a lecture tour of Ireland and England in 1859, making her one of the only African American women to act as an anti-slavery orator in Europe...