The Western Sanitary Commission reports on suffering in the Mississippi Valley, 1863

A primary source by James E. Yeatman
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Year of Resource: 
1863
Creator: 
James E. Yeatman

[Appeal from the Western Sanitary Commission to President Abraham Lincoln regarding the condition of freed slaves], November 6, 1863 (Gilder Lehrman Collection)In 1863 in the war-tor

Inline body image(s): 
[Appeal from the Western Sanitary Commission to President Abraham Lincoln regard
[Appeal from the Western Sanitary Commission to President Abraham Lincoln regard
Inline PDFs: 
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John Quincy Adams and the Amistad case, 1841

A primary source by John Quincy Adams
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Primary Sub Era: 
Year of Resource: 
1841
Creator: 
John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams to Roger S. Baldwin, November 11, 1840 (Gilder Lehrman CoOn July 1, 1839, fifty-three Africans, recently kidnapped into slavery in Sierra Leone and sold at a Havana slave market, revolted on board the schooner Amistad.

Inline body image(s): 
Barber, John W. (1798-1885) A History of the Amistad captives
John Quincy Adams to Roger S. Baldwin, November 11, 1840 (Gilder Lehrman Co
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The Gettysburg Address, 1863

A primary source by Abraham Lincoln
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Primary Sub Era: 
Year of Resource: 
1863
Creator: 
Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863 (Gilder Lehrman Collection)On November 19, 1863, four months after the Battle of Gettysburg, a ceremony was held at the site in Pennsylvania to dedicate a cemetery for the Union dead.

Inline body image(s): 
Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863 (GLC06811)
Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863 (GLC06811)
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John Brown’s final speech, 1859

A primary source by John Brown
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Primary Sub Era: 
Year of Resource: 
1859
Creator: 
John Brown

 John Brown, “Address of John Brown to the Virginia Court..." December, 1859 (Gilder Lehrman Collection)

Inline body image(s): 
Three quarter length standing view facing proper right. Photograph from painting
 John Brown, “Address of John Brown to the Virginia Court..." December 1859
 John Brown, “Address of John Brown to the Virginia Court..." December, 1859 (Gi
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Jefferson on British aggression, 1815

A primary source by Thomas Jefferson
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Year of Resource: 
1815
Creator: 
Thomas Jefferson
Synopsis: 

In this letter in defense of American nationalism, Thomas Jefferson denounced members of the British House of Lords who blamed the War of 1812 on US aggression. 

Thomas Jefferson to James Maury Esq., June 16, 1815. (GLC09077)

Thomas Jefferson to James Maury Esq., June 16, 1815. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)
Thomas Jefferson to James Maury Esq., June 16, 1815. (GLC09077)
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The duel: Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr, 1804

A primary source by Angelica Schuyler Church
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Year of Resource: 
1804
Creator: 
Angelica Schuyler Church
Synopsis: 

Within hours of the duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr, Angelica Schuyler Church, Elizabeth Hamilton’s sister and Hamilton’s close friend and correspondent, was at the fatally wounded Hamilton’s bedside and wrote this letter to her brother Philip Schuyler to break the news. 

Angelica Schuyler Church to Philip Schuyler, July 11, 1804. (Gilder Lehrman Alexander Hamilton, former secretary of the treasury, and Aaron Burr, sitting vice president of the United States, had feuded publicly for years.

Inline body image(s): 
Angelica Schuyler Church to Philip Schuyler, July 11, 1804. (Gilder Lehrman
Angelica Schuyler Church to Philip Schuyler, July 11, 1804. (Gilder Lehrman
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Two versions of the Preamble to the Constitution, 1787

A primary source by Constitutional Convention
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Primary Sub Era: 
Year of Resource: 
1787
Creator: 
Constitutional Convention
Synopsis: 

The two different preambles to the US Constitution illustrate the new view of a united nation that emerged in the last weeks of the Constitutional Convention.

On May 25, 1787, the fifty-five delegates to the Constitutional Convention began meeting in a room, no bigger than a large schoolroom, in Philadelphia’s State House. They posted sentries at the doors and windows to keep their “secrets from flying out.” They barred the press and public, and took a vow not to reveal to anyone the words spoken there. There were speeches of two, three, and four hours. The convention, which lasted four months, took only a single eleven-day break.

Inline body image(s): 
Constitution [printing of first draft] [Committee of Detail], August 6, 1787.
Constitution. Printed Dunlap & Claypoole edition inscribed to Jonathan Williams,
Constitution [printing of first draft] [Committee of Detail], August 6, 1787.
Inline PDFs: 
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George Washington’s reluctance to become president, 1789

A primary source by George Washington
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Primary Sub Era: 
Year of Resource: 
1789
Creator: 
George Washington
Synopsis: 

In April 1789, George Washington wrote to his friend Henry Knox about his reluctance to become President of the United States.

George Washington to Henry Knox, April 1, 1789. (Gilder Lehrman Collection, From 1787 to 1789, as the Constitution was submitted for ratification by the states, most Americans assumed that George Washington would be the first president.

Inline body image(s): 
George Washington, by Rembrandt Peale, ca. 1852 (GLC09119.01)
George Washington to Henry Knox, April 1, 1789. (GLC02437.09419)
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A map of the Louisiana Territory, 1814

A primary source by Meriwether Lewis
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Year of Resource: 
1814
Creator: 
Meriwether Lewis
Synopsis: 

The Lewis and Clark expedition returned to Missouri in September 1806 with valuable maps of the Louisiana Territory. After Lewis’s death in 1809, Clark took responsibility for organizing and releasing the expedition journals to eager scientists and curious Americans.

A Map of the Louisiana Territory, 1814. (Gilder Lehrman Collection) The 1803 Louisiana Purchase from France during Thomas Jefferson’s first term as president more than doubled the size of the United States.

Inline body image(s): 
A Map of the Louisiana Territory, 1814. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)
A Map of the Louisiana Territory, 1814. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)
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George Washington on the abolition of slavery, 1786

A primary source by George Washington
Resource type: 
Primary Source
Primary Sub Era: 
Year of Resource: 
1786
Creator: 
George Washington
Synopsis: 

Washington gradually came to realize that slavery was immoral and contrary to the Revolutionary ideals of liberty and equality. Although he never spoke out publicly against the institution, he did express his objections privately in this letter to John Mercer in 1786.

George Washington to John Francis Mercer, September 9, 1786. (Gilder LehrmanOf the nine presidents who were slaveholders, only George Washington freed all his own slaves upon his death.

Inline body image(s): 
"Life of George Washington--The farmer,"  by Jumius Brutus Stearns (LOC)
George Washington to John Francis Mercer, September 9, 1786. (Gilder Lehrman
Inline PDFs: 
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