Our Collection

At the Institute’s core is the Gilder Lehrman Collection, one of the great archives in American history. More than 65,000 items cover five hundred years of American history, from Columbus’s 1493 letter describing the New World to soldiers’ letters from World War II and Vietnam. Explore primary sources, visit exhibitions in person or online, or bring your class on a field trip.

Johnson, Andrew (1808-1875) Affix seal to ratification of Treaty with China.

Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC03578 Author/Creator: Johnson, Andrew (1808-1875) Place Written: Washington, D.C. Type: Document signed Date: 19 October 1868 Pagination: 1

Summary of Content: This treaty, the Burlingham Treaty of 1868, amended the Reed Treaty of 1858 by allowing free immigration. That flow of people allowed the rapid expansion of western railroads through cheap labor. (Eventually, it also provoked a racial backlash on the west coast.)


Historical Era: Rise of Industrial America, 1877-1900

Keywords/Subjects: President, Government and Civics, Global History and US Foreign Policy, Global History and US Foreign Policy, Asia, Diplomacy, Treaty, Immigration and Migration, Westward Expansion, Labor, Railroad, Vice President

Sub Era: Development of the West Immigration and Migration