Tecumseh (1768–1813) was a Shawnee leader who organized American Indian resistance to white expansion into Indian lands. Following the 1795 Treaty of Greenville, which gave the United States control of most of the Ohio Territory and which Tecumseh vehemently opposed, Tecumseh rose as a prominent American Indian leader. In 1805, his brother Tenskwatawa experienced a vision calling on his people to end their dependence on white traders and return to native ways. The brothers began to form a confederation to resist white incursion. Tecumseh traveled for several years, visiting different tribes. In 1811 in Tecumseh’s absence, Tenskwatawa ordered an attack on the camp of William Henry Harrison. Harrison’s troops had been preparing to march on the Indian camp and decisively defeated the Indians. Many of the brothers’ disheartened followers dispersed after the battle, and Tecumseh joined forces with the British in Canada. He fought for the British during the War of 1812 and was killed at the Battle of the Thames in October 1813 when William Henry Harrison invaded Canada. Most major Indian resistance to white settlement in the region ended with Tecumseh’s death.

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