Early Settlements

The essays in this section have been written by leading scholars of American history. They provide additional depth on events and ideas referred to in the introductory essay and, in some cases, different interpretations by historians looking at the same events. These essays are particularly useful as informational texts to introduce your students to one of the most exciting aspects of studying history—understanding the past from a variety of perspectives.

Conflict and Commerce: The Rise and Fall of New Netherland

Author: Simon Middleton Curriculum Subjects: Economics, World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Jamestown and the Founding of English America

Author: James Horn Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Native American Discoveries of Europe

Author: Daniel K. Richter Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Impact of Horse Culture

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography Grade Levels:

The Pueblo Revolt

Author: Edward Countryman Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:
Second edition of “Several Poems . . . ,” by Anne Bradstreet, published posthumo

“If Ever Two Were One”: Anne Bradstreet’s “To My Dear and Loving Husband”

Author: Charlotte Gordon Curriculum Subjects: Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Essays from Other Sub-Eras

Cover of Puck, November 25, 1903. (Library of Congress)

A History of the Thanksgiving Holiday

Author: Catherine Clinton Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Thomas Clarkson, The History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment . . .

African Immigration to Colonial America

Author: Ira Berlin Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:
A map from History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clark. (GLC)

America the Newcomer: Claiming the Louisiana Purchase

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Geography Grade Levels:
GLC04315

Early America’s Jewish Settlers

Author: Eli Faber Curriculum Subjects: Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:

England on the Eve of Colonization

Author: Paul E. J. Hammer Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
“A View of the Town of Boston,” by Paul Revere, 1770, detail. (GLC02873)

History Times: The Colonial Era

Author: the Gilder Lehrman Institute Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 2, 3, 4, 5
 “Taboas geraes de toda a navegação” by João Teixeira Albernaz, 1630. (LOC Maps)

Iberian Roots of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1640

Author: David Wheat Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Indian Slavery in the Americas

Author: Alan Gallay Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Navigating the Age of Exploration

Author: Ted Widmer Curriculum Subjects: Geography, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
The front of the Alamo, 1922. (LC-USZ62-87798)

Remembering the Alamo

Author: Char Miller Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Colonial Virginia Frontier and International Native American Diplomacy

Author: William White Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

The Columbian Exchange

Author: Alfred Crosby Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math, World History Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Discovery of the Americas and the Transatlantic Slave Trade

Author: Ira Berlin Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:

The League of the Iroquois

Author: Matthew Dennis Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
“Landing of Roger Williams,” (New York: Johnson Fry & Col, 1867) (GLC08878.0006)

The Puritans and Dissent: The Cases of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson

Author: Francis J. Bremer Curriculum Subjects: Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:
Detail from a World War I poster. (GLC09522)

Why Immigration Matters

Author: Thomas Kessner Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

A New Look at the Great Plains

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Geography Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+