A. Philip Randolph (1889–1979) was an African American civil rights and labor leader. In 1925, Randolph founded the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first major black trade union. As president of the union, Randolph fought discrimination against black workers. In 1941 he proposed a march on Washington, DC, to protest discrimination in federally related jobs and the armed forces. The prospect of the march led President Roosevelt to issue Executive Order #8802, which created the Fair Employment Practices Commission and prohibited discrimination by the government and companies under government contract. Randolph later established the League for Nonviolent Civil Disobedience Against Military Segregation and served as president of the Negro American Labor Council.

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