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Tucker, John S. [Diary of John S. Tucker, D company, 5th regiment, Alabama, infantry]

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Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC00653.19.01 Author/Creator: Tucker, John S. Place Written: [various places] Type: Diary Date: 1862 Pagination: 1 v. ; 11.7 x 7.9 cm.

Summary of Content: Tucker's 1862 autograph manuscript diary contains his account of day-to-day life in D company and discussions of battles such as Seven Pines, Williamsburg, Mechanicsville, and the Seven Days battles. Also mentions the evacuation of Yorktown.

Full Transcript: [Draft excerpts]
Sunday Mar 23d 1862 - Left Greensboro at 2 o'clock AM got to Selma went aboard the Senafor &. arrived in Montgomery at 12 M -
Monday Mar 24 - Spent the day ...in Montgomery &. had quite a dull time of it.
Mar 25 1862 - Took the cars at 8 o'clock A.M. Got to Atlanta at night.
Mar 26 1862 - Arrived in Augusta got Breakfast &. took the cars for Weldon
Mar 27 1862 - Arrived in Weldon at 10 A.M. - met any quantity of troops - Could get nothing to eat &. had to remain until night when we took a Box Car for Richmond
Mar 28 1862 - Arrived in Petersburg at sun up. After passing a very cold sleepless night in an open Box Car - went through the city on foof &. took the train for Richmond where we arrived at 11 o'clock AM -
Mar 29 1862 - Spent a very unpleasant day in the city-Wrote home to Annie1 - snowed sleated &. rained all day
Sunday 30 - Still in Richmond took Box Cars at 4 o'clock &. remained at depof until 8 - spending the most unpleasant night since we left home On the RR all day with scarcely any thing to eat - Got to Orange C.H. in the night. went to Epis Church &. slept till .morning.
Apl. 1st 1862 - Got up cooked our breakfast &. left for camp 5 .miles east of Orange arrived about 10 o'clock and met all the Boys - spent the day in camp - went to the 6th Ala &. saw a good .any acquaintances
Thursday 3d 1862 - Got orders to strike tents &. report at Orange C.H. Got there about 4 o'clock P.M. &. Camped on the side of a hill in an oak thicket on the east side of the Town &. R.R. - pleasant night
Friday 4- 1862 - Rae. orders to go back to camp - bundled up put out & got back about 3 o'clock P.M. pitched tents drew rations & got a good nights sleep.
Apl. 5th 1862 - Got orders early this morning to again strike tents & report at Orange C.D. as soon as possible. Packed up put out & got there at 11 o'clock A.M. & took open cars at dark. traveled all night. got no sleep at all -
Apl. 6th 1862 - Got to Richmond at 12 o'clock & was treated very hospitably by the citizens who met us with cakes, Pres Bread, Meat & every thing good to eat - passed through the City & took a Steamer at 3 o'clock P.M. & at 12 M got oft & marched the remainder of the night with out any sleep for 2 nights.
Apl. 7 1862 - Stopped marching at sun up got breakfast & continued the march. Arrived on the Battle field at 11 o'clock A.M. where the Roar of cannon & musketry was distinctly heard & our Reg held in reserve - put up Bunks - commenced raining & continued all night - Got no sleep at all
Apl. 8 1862 - Still continues to rain - remained in camp all day - Brisk skirmishing going on all the time in a half mile of us. Got orders at dark to march to Mulberry Island a distance of 10 ms. mud a foof deep nearly all the way - raining & awful cold - Got to camp at midnight as wet as a rat & so cold I could hardly walk. Worst march of the campaign
Wednesday 9th - Remained in camp all day - very cold & raining - Yankees in a half mile of us.
Thursday, Apl 10th - Still in camp to day - Very cold yet - Snowing - Haven't had my boofs oft in five nights nor slept scarcely none at all during the time. Expecting marching orders.
Friday Apl 11 1862 - Clear & pretty day. Got marching orders & left for Yorktown after dinner - Camped for the night in a mile of the City - Been quite unwell all day -
Saturday 12th 1862 - Got up & continued the march to Yorktown & camped on the field that Cornwallis surrendered on and closed the first "American Revolution" Plenty of Yankees in sight of us but no fighting going on - Fair pretty day - feeling much better to day than yesterday.
Sunday Apl. 13 1862 - In Camp & doing nothing - the day most unlike Sunday - some playing cards. Some washing clofhes & ofhers at various ofher things - Went in Town & looked all over it - A very dilApldated looking place - most of the houses shelled burned or pulled down & camps in place -fine day
Monday Apl. 14 - Still in camp & at various duties. The weather warm. Clear & delightful - Tuesday Ap1 15 - Still at camp - weather fine - Detailed to cut out a Road & had to work awful hard. Finished returned to camp & Wrote to Annie -
Wednesday Apl. 16 - Fine day. Brisk skirmishing going on. Yankees in sight. Out on Picket all day. In the evening a regular engagement commenced & lasted until dark - very heavy cannonading - Yankee loss heavy - ours not so great - Was in about 1 1/2 miles of the Battle.
Thursday Ap1 17th - Still on Picket and got very little sleep last night. was relieved at Dark. Weather fine.
Friday Apl 18th - Got a good nights sleep & have been sleeping good part of to day - Weather still clear & pleast. Wrote to Annie to day -
Saturday Apl 19 - Detailed to work on Breast works & was put through all day - Cloudy & prospect good for rain -
Sunday Apl 20th - Rained all night last night - All hands got wet - didn't sleep but very little -Today seems most unlike Sunday - Instead of resting from our labors & listening to Church Bells we hear nothing but the Roar of artillery & rattle of Musketry & see nothing but large squads of men at almost every imaginable army work & duty - those not on duty or most of them amuse them selves by playing Poker, singing vulgar songs, Cursing & swearing etc. etc. - Rained all day
Monday the 21st - Still Raining - Every thing about camp perfectly wet & in bad condition - We still live in agonizing suspense expecting a big fight every hour - rained until night & got as wet as a rat -
Tuesday Apl 22d - Nothing new to note to day - Had hard showers of rain during the day -
Wednesday Apl 3d - Clear & pretty day - had nothing to do today but sleep & rest. Wrote home to Ma in the evening - moved on duty at dark & kept on all night.
Thursday Apl 24
Raining & quite cold - still on duty & get very little sleep
Friday Apl 25th
Cold cloudy & sprinkling rain - will be relieved to night for a short rest spell & moved out into a woods 1/2 mile from Yorktown
Saturday Apl 26
Rained the whole day - got a good nights sleep last night & had a good dinner today - Peas pork biscuits & for desert Pan Cakes & syrup - Wrote to Annie by Mr. Cowin -
Sunday Apl 27
To day the election of officers take place - still cloudy but not raining this morning - Passed the Whiskey round & opened the polls - Election resulted Pegsus "Col" Hall "Lt Col" Hobron "Major" as field officers. For Company I "Greensboro Guards" J W Williams "Capt" Dr Ramsey "1st Lt" Joe Borden "2d Lt" W C Tunstall 3d Lt E P Jones O.S. This has been a big day in many of the Regiments in electing their field & company officers & a great many of the men got gloriously tight - ordered from the woods back to Yorktown at dark - 110 men in the Co & 60 odd on the sick list.
Monday Apl 28 1862
On picket to day - Sun shining out once more - Mr Cowin left for home this morning - Heard old Col Subles make a farewell speech to his Reg which was followed by Col Gordon who had just been elected - (6th Ala)
Tuesday Apl 29th
On Picket to day but relieved at night & returned to our camp to rest 48 hours
Wednesday Apl 30th
In camp - nothing new to note - Ed & Geo quite sick - Wrote to Dr in the evening - Cloudy & likely to rain.
Thursday May 1st
Geo & Ed left for the hospital in Richmond - Bad weather - ordered on picket at night
Friday May 2 1862
Was on picket all last night & got no sleep at all - orders to prepare 3 days rations & be ready to .arch at a moments warning. Sick men all sent back last night after 9 o'clock - Got a letter from Annie this evening which was quite a treat. Beny Jones & Bro left for home -
Saturday May 3d
Nothing new to note - all quiet - orders to emigrate at 7 o'clock P.M. & evacuated Yorktownl burning tents spiking cannon & destroying every thing that could not be taken away -
Sunday May 4
Marched all night last night through the mud & got to Williamsburg at 12 o'clk M. a very nice though quite an old looking place. The country surrounding for miles being all cleared up rendered the view magnificently beautiful - the whole plain being covd. with Troops, artillery, cavalry, wagons, ambulances etc. all moving in the same direction extending as far as the eye could see - in passing through Williamsb'g all the eligible places in the buildings were crowded with men, women & children all of whom wore a countenance of sadness & deep regret. They knew we were on the retreat and I could not help feeling sorry for a people who were burning with a feeling of humiliation at the prospect of their quiet fireside soon being visited by a set of "Yankee marauders" & made desolate. We were .arched out 2 ms north of the city where we camped for the night & had the pleasure of enjoying a good nights sleep, which all hands were much in need of.
Monday May 5th.
The advance of the Yankees attacked our rear guard yesterday1 & had a sharp skirmish in which we repulsed them taking 1 cannon 5 caissons & a number of prisoners - The attack was again renewed this morning with more energy & most of the army was ordered at daylight to the scene of action a short distance south of Williamsburg - we left for the scene of action at 1 P.M. & doubled quicked it for 2 miles through mud & water. Were drawn up in line of Battle & held in reserve - the tight raged all day & rain poured down incessantly. We captured 9 cannon, a lof of Horses, over 300 prisoners & a stand of colours - besides killing many. Loss on our side very small until late in the evening, when 2 Reg were ordered to charge a redoubt in an open field and were nearly annihilated. Dark came on & separated the Combatants each holding their own positions - all kinds of wounds could be seen as the men were brought in - the Reg. had to stand in line of Battle in an open field nearly all night without fire & in a cold hard rain - I was Detailed to assist in carrying off the wounded & at dark flew up to Roost in a Henhouse but didn't get a particle of sleep -
Thursday May 6th
Commenced retreating again this morning at 2 o'clk A.M. the troops nearly all broken down from fatigue, hunger & want of sleep. The Road for 5 miles was strewn with Blankets, Overcoats, Clofhing, Knap Sacks, Cooking Utensils, Sick Men Etc. Etc. - Roads awfully muddy & wagons & artillery continually bogging down - the sick & wounded left in Williamsburg at the mercy of the Yankees. The march was continued 18 or 20 miles to a little place called "Ordinary" (quite an appropriate name) where we camped for the night - the men were so hungry that they ate corn, collard stalks, turnips, beets, or anything they could get hands on.
Wednesday May 7th
Got an elegant nights sleep & feeling fine this morning, only very hungry - Army moved off at Sun up & continued marching until about 2 o'clk P.M. when we were halted until night - then marched on to "Liberty Church" on Diascund Creek & went to sleep for the night -
Thursday May 8
Clear pretty day. Was sent back about 1 mile on picket - Wrote to Annie while on post or part of the letter - was bro't back to the Reg. in the evening and .arched until 2 o'clk at night when we bivouacked for the remainder - all hands nearly broken down.
Friday May 9th
Took up the line of march at 11 A.M. Got to Chickahominy River at night and camped for the night - Bad roads but good weather - all very tired & hungry and nothing to eat - soon killed some Beeves - got hard Bread & was all right -
Saturday May 10th
Still camped on Chickahominy & resting finely - Wrote to Annie or rather finished one I had commenced.
Sunday May 11 1862
Nothing new to note to day - had two Battalion Drills to day which is the first drilling I have done since I've been in the service. Ed & Geo returned to camp -
Monday May 12th 1862
In camp. drilling, eating, lounging round & having a pretty good time - Weather clear & pleasant - Tim returned to camp.
Tuesday May 13th
Still in camp at Chickahominy Bridge. drilling etc. - Weather fine - Wrote to Annie to day -
Wednesday May 14
Nothing new to note to day - cloudy & raining - orders to be ready for a march in the morning at day light. Let the weather be wet & disagreeable & we are sure to be moved. Where we are going or for what purpose none know.
Thursday May 15th
All hands roused up this morning out of our comfortable Bunks an hour before day-light & dident take up the line of march until 1/2 past 3 o'clk - then went about 4 miles and camped - had a muddy wet & disagreeable march
Friday May 16th
Commenced traveling again at 11 o'clk A.M. and continued until after dark. Road very bad and all quite hungry. Truly is the life of a soldier hard -
Saturday May 17th
Marched again to day & Bivouacked at night on a level plain covered with Honey Suckle bushes as thick as they could stand. about waist high and in full bloom, which presented to the eye quite a pretty Flower Garden. I imagined it Annie had been there how very soon would she have had her pretty little hands full of them, but to the weary and hungry Soldier they did not present many charms. Drew our Rations cooked & eat our dinner & supper & tumbled down upon our blankets to rest repose and refresh ourselves for the toils of tomorrow.
Sunday May 18th
Continued our journey early this morning & struck camp within 3 miles of Richmond at 11 o'clk A.M. where it is thought we will remain for some time - having run about as far as we can without giving up Richmond. Went to an Ice pond in the evening and had a glorious wash - Thousands of Troops in bathing & having a jolly time of it.
Monday May 19th
Had to report on the sick list for the 1st time. Have had Diarrhea pretty bad all day & feel quite unwell - Got a pr of new shoes to day which came in a good time -
Tuesday May 20
Still on the Sick: list & feeling badly. Haven't eat any thing in two days scarcely - Got a letter from Mrs. N. Dr. Buckford.
Wednesday May 21
Answered Mrs N. letter this morning. Nothing new to note to day -still feeling quite unwell - seems as though I shall never get rid of the Diarrhea.
Thursday May 22
Fine day - Still in camp at same place - Got appointment of Clerk of the Company which relieves me of Drill Wrote to Annie -
Friday May 23, 1862
On detail to day to go to Richmond & arrest stragglers - Went all over the whole city & out to Camp Winder the nastiest place I ever saw in my life - got back: to camp at daylight having been up all night and about as tired as I well could be -
Saturday May 24
Commenced raining early this morning - Sharp skirmishing going on with the advance of the Yankee Army. A fight expected soon - orders to cook all the provisions on hand hold ourselves ready for action at the shortest notice - Consequently all the boys are busy cooking meat & biscuits -
Sunday May 25th
Left our camp this morning & went out on picket on the same road we came up on and about 5 miles distant making the distance to Richmond 8 miles - a tight expected every hour but every thing has been unusually quiet to day - perhaps it owing to "McCle11ans" religious proclivities - being opposed to fighting on Sunday - Have passed the day in sleeping & reading the "Bible" only when on duty - cloudy but pleasant weather.
Monday May 26 1862
Sun was clear this morning & the prospect for a pretty day was good but about 12 o'clk it clouded up & now every indication is that we shall have plenty of rain by night - We are bivouacked in an oak thicket near the road some 4 miles from the Yankees and part of our regiment are on advanced picket post - all quiet to day on the entire line - not even a single gun heard to day - Good many of the residents passing by going in the direction of Richmond with bag & baggage. I suppose to get out of the way of the two armies - Grain crops are looking very fine - Wheat will soon be ready to cut but in many cases the fences are entirely destroyed - however there is not much stock left to interfere with them materially - Got a letter from Dr dated Apl 12th having been on the way 42 days
Tuesday May 27th.
Got up this morning at day light packed up and marched a short distance where we remained in line until about 12 o'clk: & then returned to the same place. Rained as hard as it could pour all the morning & every thing and every body got as wet as they could be - later part of the day clear and pretty - Heavy tiring all the evening in the direction of Richmond - Cause unknown but its quite probable a big battle has been fought - Wrote to Dr.-
Wednesday May 28
Left picket post this morning & came back: about one mile & camped in the woods - Rained in the evening - Got a letter & papers from Annie sent by Mr Taylor
Thursday May 29th
Sharp skirmishing commenced this morning on our picket lines long roll beat & the Reg drawn up in a line awaiting the progress of affairs where we now remain at this writing - Dident have time to get through with breakfast - Remained in this suspense until 12 o'clk when the excitement all ended in smoke & the affair turned into company drills - Detailed on guard. Fine day -
Friday May 30
Wrote home to Annie to day &: devofed 8 pages - all quiet - came up the hardest rain in the evening I ever saw fall &: continued all night -
Saturday May 31st
Had 2 days rations hard bred [bread] issued fixed up &: moved off at 8 o'clk AM to attack the enemy - had to go through mud &: water. the latter in many places waist deep - Creeks, Pond &: branches - for about 5 miles - Engaged the enemy at 2 o'clk &: had a desperate fighto which lasted until dark - We drive them back one mile taking all their earth works a large number of canon, small arms, amunition, camp equipage provisions etc etc - our loss very heavy - most of our Boys exchanged their guns for better ones - got canteens & many other little tricks from the Yankees - we slept on the field and on
Sunday June 1st
the attack was again renewed on our left &: a desperate fight ensued lasting until about 12 o'clk & resulting in the repulse of the enemy with the loss of their camp equipage etc etc - We buried all of our dead this morning and at night marched back several miles over very muddy roads & camped for the night - all hands nearly broken down5
Monday June 2d
Remained in our camp all day to day sleeping resting &: reorganizing for more desperate fighting - all hands writing home - Wrote to Annie
Tuesday June 3d
A fight expected to day &: the whole army drawn up in a line of Battle where they remained until night without a fight - our whole army fell back yesterday about 2 miles this side of the Battlefield of Saturday &: Sunday for the purpose of getting a better position &: an of her Big fight is hourly expected - Commenced at dark &: Rained the entire night as hard as it could pour and our camp was in a complete float -
Wednesday June 4th
Still Raining very hard this morning &: everyone of our bunks half leg deep in water - Blankets, Knapsacks, clothes and every thing we have as wet as water can make it - The country is generally very low &: flat and rains oftener &: more than any place I ever saw in my life. All quiet along our lines to day
Thursday June 5th
Still cloudy &: raining - Brisk skirmishing, heavy cannonading and the Reg in line of Battle near all day but had no fight. Wrote to Annie again &: sent some Yankee letters picked up on the Battle field -
Friday June 6th
Still raining all quiet along the lines - sent Eds Knapsack to him by Ellison but afterward learned he left for home yesterday morning -
Saturday June7th
Rained nearly all day - Sharp skirmishing going on a good part of the day. Issued whiskey to the Reg &: the Boys all got pretty lively
Sunday June 8, 1862
Heavy cannonading near camp this morning. Went to church to day for first time in the army &: listened to an excellent sermon. Introduction - Hymn "Show pity Lord 0 Lord forgive - Let a repenting rebel live" Text - 2 ch &: 3d verse of second Timothy - in which was drawn a striking contrast between the C. Soldier &: the soldier of the Cross - delivered by the Rev. Mr. Hazen a talented &: nice speaker. He gave us much good advice, the .most important of which was to abstain from the use of Ardent Spirits &: profane swearing, two of the worst habits in an army - particularly the latter as an oath is always on the end of the tongue of at least three fourths. the former is not much indulged in as it is seldom issued - however we got a ration of it yesterday & all seemed to enjoy it finely - and I sometimes think that [if] it was occasionally issued in small quantities where we are in the rain mud & water it would be an advantage - particularly to health. Got a letter from Annie to day &: answered the same - also Wrote to Mae
Monday June 9th.
Today is the first clear day we have had in some time. All quiet along the lines except occasional cannonading.
Tuesday June 10 1862
Commenced raining last night and has continued unceasingly all day long. All housed up in our "Bunks" & every thing quite still & quiet on the line. Wednesday June 11 1862
Clear to day - nothing worth noticing whatever.
Thursday June 12th.
Another clear day has passed & our ca8lp is drying off very much - Reg went out on picket this morning - I did not go & have been quite lonesome all day long - no signs of a fight.

Friday June 13th. 1862
Clear & quite warm - camp is again dry - Beautiful weather for fighting but none going on except a little cannonading this morning out on the picket lines - Wrote to Bill Walter to day - Reg returned from picket - have passed a dull quiet day

Saturday June 14 1862
Clear quite warm to day - in fact the heat in the middle of the day was offensive. All quiet & no indications of a fight soon. however it is hard to tell any thing about what is going to occur. Got a lof of Tents to day &: are now getting pretty well fixed up -

Sunday June 15th.
The whole army was on the move to day & about 120'clk marched near a de in the direction of the enemy where it remained until dark & returned to camp without a fight. At about 3 P.M. for one hour I don't think I ever felt warmer weather - then Came up a very hard rain which lasted until night preventing any further military operations. -

Monday June 16
The weather clear & pleasant - All quiet in camp & nothing of interest to note.

Tuesday June 17th.
Quite cold last night &: there was almost frost this morning - Clear, cool & pleasant day - Got the appointment of Com'y Sgt. which relieves me from all company duty - gives me a horse to ride & pays $7 a month more than a private.

Tuesday June 17th
Delightful day - Heavy firing all the forenoon in the direction of City Point. Supposed to be between our Batteries & the Yankee Gun Boats - caught a severe cold last night and have been very unwell all day.

June the 18th 1862
Weather continues clear & pleasant. Nothing has occurred to day worthy of note. Had several false alarms of the approach of the enemy & all the troops soon ordered in line of battle for a short time. Saw 2 Yanks brought in to day that were bagged on our picket lines - Wrote to Annie &: rec'd a letter from her.

June 19th 1862
Weather still fine - Affairs extremely quiet & dull along our lines - seemingly no indication of a fight - Wrote to Annie again to day -

June 20 1862
No news whatever - times quite dull - weather fine

Saturday June 21
Fair pleasant weather - a little warm in the middle of the day but a good breeze blowing all the time - the night being cool & delightful. Went to Richmond to day after a load of Bread.

Sunday June 22d
To day has passed off very quietly - at this writing I am sitting on a Breast work beside the Williamsburg Turnpike 3 mi1es from Richmond in a large though barren field, where I can see at a glance any quantity of Camps, Troops, Wagons to & fro Artillery, Caissons, ambulances, Horses and all the appliances of our "grim visaged War" and in the distance far above the top of trees is p1ain1y exhibited the Yankee Balloon taking a view of our position works and Capital. That some important movement is on foot is evident but what it is none except the leaders know. The day had been beautiful and pleasant beyond description & the weather all that could be desired since May 30th but alas! its too far from home & the loved ones, to render the situation agreeable or pleasant to me under any circumstances.

Monday June23
Pleasant day & nothing new to note - all quiet on the lines. Wrote to Annie by Sam Wright.

TuesdayJune 24 1862
Continues pleasant & dull - Had a hard summers rain late in the evening which effectually layed a disagreeable dust - Visited the 11th Ala to day & saw a good lI8Jly of the Maringo Co boys -

Wednesday June 25th
Pleasant though quite cool with a stiff northern wind - Reg at work on Breastworks until 11 AM then called out & remained in line of Battle' until dark - a heavy picket fight occurred in the evening in which our side sustained a pretty heavy loss - that of the enemy unknown - Went to Richmond to day after a load of bread.

Thursday June 26
Our R.eg was called up twice last night - the second time at 3 o'clk this .morning when they were moved off about 6 miles to the Mechanicsville Turnpike where a hard battle' has been going on since "P.M. until this writing. (after sun down) with what result I know not having been left in charge of Com'y stores - its quite likely our R.eg and Brigade is engaged. Will join them in the morning & learn all the facts - The weather is beautiful & any quantity of fighting is anticipated tomorrow

Friday June 27th 1862
Went to sleep last night with the roar of canon sounding in my ears & was woke up before day break this morning to pack up & move com' y stores etc and the same sound was going on - I hastened to the scene of action & succeeded in finding the Reg at 11 am & found they had not been engaged. I then returned to bring up the com'y wagons & did not get with it again. Saw any quantity of wounded & dead men & all the paraphernalia of war - truly is war a horrid necessity - The weather is clear and pleasant & the roads very dusty.

Saturday June 28 1862
Got back to Maj Webster's camp last night & remained with him. This morning had the wagons loaded with provisions and returned to the Reg finding it late in evening - in going on I passed over several Battle Fields that were strongly contested the sight of dead men & horses was appalling - lying in every direction & horribly thick. Southerners & Yankees all together - the fight was hardest yesterday evening & Geo Prior was badly wounded in making a charge - We have any quantity of goods & chattels captured from the enemy -

Sunday June 29
Remained at the wagon yard to day & issued rations to the sick in camp & rested - Nearly worn out from riding night and day - The fight still goes on and the enemy continues to fall back as fast as they can.

Monday June 30
Got up this morning at day break. went to Richmond and then on to the Reg. & found all the boys well & in fine spirits all doing well & regaling over their Yankee trophies - Returned to camp at 11 P.M. tired enough having rode all day

Tuesday July 1
Went out on a rifling expedition to day with a 2 horse wagon & picked up any quantity of little necessary articles. Dident go to the Reg to day but heard heavy firing & hard fighting in the direction of the army - Result as yet unknown. Weather though dusty has been very fine since the fight was opened.

Wednesday July 2
Commenced raining last night & still continues this morning - went down to the Reg & found only 10 .en in Company & they were worn out - Was on the battle field also & never saw such destruction before - Returned to Camp late at night & have caught the mumps -

Thursday July3d
Went to Richmond this morning - came back to camp and remained all day quite unwell - weather fine -

Friday July 4th. 1862
Got a good nights rest last night and rose early this morning feeling much better - got breakfast & left for the Reg. 16 miles below and got to them about 1 P.M. found them all lazying round doing nothing except resting - no fighting going on to day but our forces are in pursuit of the Yankees. No national salutes have been fired by the Yankees as is their usual custom. Guess they are tired of listening to the roar of artillery for the last ten days - got a letter from a & Wrote to her.

Saturday July 5th. 1862
Remained in camp to day & in the evening went to the battle field - all the dead were buried except a few Yanks - and the field did not present such a harrowing scene as when I was last there - Mr Jeffries remained in our camp last night & left for town this morning - Wrote to Annie & sent a bundle by him - The weather continues clear & pleasant & the roads are rapidly improving from the condition produced by the heavy rain on the 2d inst.-

Sunday July 6th. 1862
Went down on the James River to day & was near City Point - When the Yankees got to the River they threw away guns, accouterments & knapsacks in immense quantities. not getting transportation as they no doubt expected and were doubtless broken down - They killed any quantity of hogs, sheep & cattle. The country is lovely beyond description - splendid large farms of Clover, wheat & corn & .any large magnificent residences & negro quarters giving evidence of much wealth. Picked up on the trip many little Yankee tricks. got back to camp at 4 PM & partook of an excellent dinner - Chicken Pie - made of an old Muscovie & Blackberry Pie for desert - all things as still &quiet as the midnight hour

Monday July 7 1862
The Reg was moved about 2 miles further on to day where they could get excellent water and get rid of the effluvia of dead horses & men - The new camp being an excellent location - Wrote to Annie to day

Tuesday July 8 1862
Issued rations this morning & left for wagon yard near Richmond where I arrived last in the evening with a high fever which lasted nearly all night making me feel very badly - Had a hot dusty & disagreeable ride - Wrote a few lines to Ed

Wednesday July 9 1862
Got up this morning feeling very unwell and had to keep my bed most of the day - one testicle swollen as large as a squash. The weather has been fine though quite dusty -

Thursday July 10
Remained at camp all day & improved a little. Commenced raining in the
evening & continued through out the night.

Friday July 11 1862
Still rained until 12 M. & I got a full benefit - being in it all - Reg came back last night a little nearer Richmond than their old position - all quiet & dull -

Saturday July 12th
Clean cool & pleasant day - Nothing of importance to note - been sick all day - Rec'd a letter from Dr & one from 1Ia.

Sunday July 13 1862
Fair day - all quiet in a military way - Went to Richmond for the purpose of getting a good dinner. stopped at the American paid one dollar and got almost no dinner at all. Completely tuck in - returned to camp as sick as a horse -

Monday July 14th
Pleasant weather. Everything dull. Quite unwell. Wrote to Ma & Dr B. Went out in the evening & gathered some Black & Huckleberries to make pies - Intend to have something good tomorrow.

Tuesday July 15th
Warm day - Everything dull - Had Blackberry Pies for dinner - Eat a whole ~ & it almost cured me. Rained in the evening.

Wednesday July 16
Went to Richmond to day & had a very warm ride of it - Col Pegrus died this .morning & the Regt went in for the purpose of burying him but an extremely hard rain came up wetting the whole crowd and the services were postponed in consequence of it. I was fortunate enough to remain at camp.

Thursday July17 1862
Remained in quarters to day & was busy writing. An occasional breeze & showers though quite warm. Wrote to Annie and rec'd a letter from her though old data - also recd one from Bill Watter - all quiet in camp - & no apparent prospect of a move soon -

Friday July 18th
Nothing to note to day of interest. Very warm - Wrote to Walter & Joe Atkins -

Saturday July 19th
Wagon went down below Seven Pines to a yankee Hospital & got a fine lot of Ice. Had a lot of "Bust Head" Commissary whiskey on hand & what a time we have had drinking cocktails Mint Juleps and Ice water though no one got the least tight - fine day though warm.

Sunday July 20th
Spent the day in writing to Annie &: enjoying the luxury of our fast melting ice - The day has been quite pleasant, though dull &: lonesome - Capt Adams spent the day in Richmond &: with the exception of one of the boys occasionally dropping in to get some Ice, I have been alone much to my gratification. Drilling for the day was dispensed with &: many could be seen reading their Bibles while others were whiling away the time in sleeping &: writing to the loved ones at home. - What a reformation fighting brings about in a Regiment and what a change has come over the spirit of the dreams of the 5th Ala since the Battle of Seven Pines. Had a good dinner but its to far from home to relish it with any degree of satisfaction.

Monday July 21 st
Have had occasional showers - pleasant - Been busy making out returns all day - The roar of artillery has been sending forth its thunder peels all day, with short intervals, and for what purpose did not occur to me until dark when I could see numerous Sky Rockets going up in the City and other extensive demonstrations in fire works. I recollected that it was the anniversary of the "Battle of Manassas". The cars on the York River RR also came by our camp from the White House with a full display of fire works.

Tuesday July 22, 1862
Fine day - Cool and pleasant - Nothing new to note. All quiet along the lines &: no indications of an early movement. Drilling &: reorganization goes briskly on. Health of the men are not good -

Wednesday July 23d
Cloudy day with occasional showers - Everything is going on about as usual. Got a "Beacon" of the 18th inst. but it contained nothing new of any importance - Bad a good dinner - Living finely nowadays - Busy making up the Commissary returns. Tim is much better to day but is very imprudent in his diet - Hope he'll soon be well -

Thursday July 24th.
Weather fine. A little warm. Wrote to Annie nothing new to note. More than everything remains quiet.

Friday July 25th. 1862
Pleasant day. All quiet. Good new from Morgan in Ky. - Wrote to Ed in regard to the extension of his furlough. Busy making up returns. A tedious job sure.

Saturday July 26th.
All quiet to day &: nothing new to note of interest - Came up a very hard rain in the evening.

Sunday July 27, 1862
Pleasant weather - Cool &: nice since the rain yesterday eve. had a crowd to dine with us &: had a very good dinner - remained in camp all day - &: took a good nap in the evening.

Monday July 28th.
All quiet &: nothing to note - Weather quite pleasant.

Tuesday July29 1862
To day has passed off about as yesterday.

Wednesday July30th.
Nothing to note to day - dull &: quiet weather fine - no prospect of a fight soon from appearances.
Thursday July 31st
Today is a type of yesterday

Friday Augt 1 1862
I have only the same to mote to day as yesterday

Saturday Aug 2 1862
Had a heavy rain to day which cooled the air very much - Some artillery shooting down on the James - with which exception all is quiet on the lines &no indication of a tight soon

Sunday Aug 3 1862
Went to the Creek: & had a splendid wash all over - had an excellent dinner & took a tine nap afterwards - Weather clear & pleasant.

Monday Aug 4th
Reg: went on picket. I didn't go - weather continues good though a little too war. in the middle of the day to be pleasant. Got a letter from Annie & answered it.

Tesday Aug 5th
Finished up all the returns this morning. Dined with Maj Webster &had a splendid vegetable dinner - Very warm - Heavy cannonading in the direction of Drewey's Bluff &a report that lighting is going on down at "Malvern Hill". Will go down to the Regt in the .morning with provisions.

Wednesday Aug 6th
Weather very warm - Division ordered down to Malvern Hill - did not go down -

Thursday Aug 7th
Left for the Regt this morning at 2 A.M. A light was expected but didn't occur - Yankees "skedadelled" to their boats & we again occupied the hill - Troops left for camp & traveled until 11 P.M. - then bivouacked for the night.

Friday Aug 8th
Returned to Camp - Weather very warm.

Saturday Aug 9th
awful hot day - all quiet & dull -

Sunday Aug 10 1862
Wrote to Annie & Parks - Continues enre.ely war. - no news -

Monday Aug 11 1862
To day is a repetition of yesterday -

Tuesday Aug 12th
Went to Town. Very very hot day - Got .arching orders -

Wednesday Aug 13th
Weather continues quite warm - No news of interest. Wrote to Mrs. N. -

Thursday Aug 14th
Went to Richmond with [ ) and left him at 2d Ala Hospital - no news at all Weather very warm -
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Historical Era: Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877

Subjects: Soldier's DiaryBattleBattle of Seven Pines (Fair Oaks Station)Battle of Williamsburg (Fort Magruder)Battle (Siege, Surrender) of YorktownConfederate States of AmericaMilitary HistoryCivil WarInfantry

Sub Era: The American Civil War

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