Williams, Roger to John Winthrop
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Discusses the current behavior of the Native Americans in his area. Mentions struggles between the sachem Uncas, allied with the European settlers, and his enemy, Miantinomo. Postscript possibly refers to the efforts of King Charles I to restore High Church liturgy in Scotland. Written to Royal Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Winthrop during (or shortly after) his second term. Date of composition may be 7 June 1640 instead of 6 July 1640. Williams was founder of Rhode Island.
Although most of New England's settlers were Puritans, these people did not agree about religious doctrine. Some, like the Pilgrims of Plymouth, believed that the Church of England should be renounced, while others, like Massachusetts Bay's leaders, felt that the English church could be reformed. Other issues that divided Puritans involved who could be admitted to church membership, who could be baptized, and who could take communion.
Disagreements over religious beliefs led to the formation of a number of new colonies. In 1636, Thomas Hooker (1586-1647), a Cambridge, Massachusetts minister, established the first English settlement in Connecticut. Convinced that government should rest on free consent, he extended voting rights beyond church members. Two years later, another Massachusetts group founded New Haven colony in order to combat moral laxness by setting strict standards for church membership and basing its laws on the Old Testament. This colony was incorporated by Connecticut in 1662.
In 1635, Massachusetts Bay colony banished Roger Williams (1604-1683), a Salem minister, for claiming that the civil government had no right to force people to worship in a particular way. Williams had even rejected the ideal that civil authorities could compel observance of the Sabbath. Equally troubling, he argued that Massachusetts's royal charter did not justify taking Indian land. Instead, Williams argued, the colonists had to negotiate fair treaties and pay for the land.
Instead of returning to England, Williams headed toward the Narragansett Bay, where he founded Providence, which later became the capital of Rhode Island. From 1654 to 1657, Williams was president of Rhode Island colony.
In Rhode Island, Williams found allies among certain Indian tribes. Like other colonial leaders, he would play off different tribes against one another (not unlike the way tribes would play off the French and English). The Sachem (chief) of the Mohican Indians, Uncas, allied himself with English settlers in Massachusetts but sometimes fought other tribes allied to the English, such as the Narragansetts. In this letter Williams writes to Winthrop about Uncas holding three Narragansett ("Nayantoquits") and five "friends," apparently captured in battle or raiding. Miantonomi of the Narragansett, an ally of the English and friend of Williams, was sent to get the prisoners.
Prior to this letter, Miantonomi had received permission from the English to fight Uncas. In 1643 Governor Winthrop would allow Uncas to execute Miantonomi, whom he had defeated in battle. Uncas managed to defeat neighboring tribes in war, and thus helped to more firmly establish English hegemony in New England.
The nineteenth-century American novelist James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) would give the name Uncas to the title character in his classic tale of Indian-white friendship and conflict, The Last of the Mohicans, which he set a century later in time, amid the French and Indian War.
Providence 7 6 ([illegible]) 40
About (from Portsmouth) I received Yours: As I Lately advertizd to mr Govr, ye Hurries [yt] - ye Natives thoughts & Consultations so Continue, about ye 3 Nayantaquits prisoners with 5 friends at Qunniticut; yt Your Runnawayes are Longer secure in their Escape then otherwise they should be.
The Monhiggin Sachim Onkas refuseth to part with his prey: And whereas Miantunnomu was going up to [inserted: Monhiggin] [inserted: himself] with a Sufficient Company for three Runnawayes: Onkas sent word yt it was [Yor Wors] plot to bring him: into ye Snare at [strikeout] Monhiggin yt there ye Qunnihticut English might fall upon him.
Mianturnnomu still promiseth me to Come over to you, & his purpose (to his utmost) to bring them with him:
my occasions lead me within these 4 or 5 dayes to Qunnipiug when (ye Lord so permitting: I purpose to goe up to Monhiggin & try ye utmost my Selfe: The yssue of all is in yt Everlasting Hand, in [text loss] is o[r] Breath & [In] Wayes in Whome I desire to [be] still
Yor Wors. [text loss][faigard]
I thank ye wo[illegible] for the Scotch Intelligence: the Issue (I feare) will be generall & grievous persecution of all [Saincts.]
Mine & my poor wives best Salutes to Mrs. Winthrop & all yors.
(6) 10 - 40
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