Our Collection

At the Institute’s core is the Gilder Lehrman Collection, one of the great archives in American history. More than 70,000 items cover five hundred years of American history, from Columbus’s 1493 letter describing the New World to soldiers’ letters from World War II and Vietnam. Explore primary sources, visit exhibitions in person or online, or bring your class on a field trip.

Citation Guidelines

Here are some examples of citation formats for the specific types of content you are likely encounter on the Gilder Lehrman website: essays, multimedia, spotlights on primary sources, and primary sources. We have included APA, MLA, and Turabian (adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style). The examples below are suggested models, and you should verify preferred citations of online materials with your teacher or department.

APA (6th edition)

These examples follow Concise Rules of APA Style, 6th ed. (Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2010).

Essays

Spotlights on Primary Sources

Multimedia

Primary Sources

MLA (7th edition)

These examples follow MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009). MLA advises including the source medium (e.g., Web) and the access date. MLA also suggests eliminating the url, but we have shown it in the Lists of Works Cited examples in case your teacher or department wants it included.

Essays

Spotlights on Primary Sources

Multimedia

Primary Sources

Turabian (8th edition)

These examples follow Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013). The two different styles described in Turabian—notes-bibliography style and author-date style—are listed below.

Notes-Bibliography Style

Essays

Spotlights on Primary Sources

Multimedia

Primary Sources

Author-Date Reference Style

Essays

Spotlights on Primary Sources

Multimedia

Primary Sources