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Claypoole, D.C., (fl. 1792) The Mail; or Claypoole's Daily Advertiser [No. 432, October 16, 1792]

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Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC09730 Author/Creator: Claypoole, D.C., (fl. 1792) Place Written: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Type: Newspaper Date: 16 October 1792 Pagination: 4 p. ; 50.5 x 35.4 cm.

One issue of a newspaper, The Mail; or Claypoole's Daily Advertiser dated October 16, 1792. Contains advertisements for linens, willow hats, wax paintings, copper, glassware as well as letters. Featured on page 3 is correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and African American scientist, Benjamin Banneker regarding publishing Banneker's almanac and issues of race and equality.

Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806) was an African-American scientist, astronomist, naturalist and farmer.

[Draft Created by Crowdsourcing]
From the VIRGINIA GAZETTE.
Mr. DIXON,
You are requested to insert the following letter from Benjamin Banneker, a Black Man, to the Secretary of State, with his answer thereto, and you will oblige a number of your readers.
Maryland, Baltimore County, near Ellicott's Lower Mills, Aug. 19, 1791.
To THOMAS JEFFERSON, Esq.
SIR,
I AM fully convinced of the greatness of that freedom which I take with you on the present occasion : a liberty which seemed to me scarcely allowable,

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when I reflected on that distinguished and dignified station in which you stand ; and the almost general prejudice and prepossession which is so prevalent in the world against those of my complexion.
I suppose it is a truth too well attested to you, to need a proof here, that we are a race of beings who have long labored under the abuse and censure of the world, that we have long been looked upon with an eye of contempt, considered rather as brutish than human, and scarcely capable of mental endowments.
I hope I may safely admit, in consequence of that report, which hath reached me, that you are a man fas less inflexible in sentiments of this nature, than many others, that you are measurably friendly and well disposed toward us, and that you are willing and ready to lend your air and assistance to our relief from those many distresses and numerous calamities to which we are reduced.
Now, Sir, if this be founded in truth, I apprehend you will readily embrace every opportunity, to eradicate that train of absurd and false ideas and opinions which so generally prevail in respect to us, and that your sentiments are concurrent with mine, which are, that one universal Father hath given being to us all, and that he hath not only made us of one flesh, but that he hath also without partiality, afforded us all the same sensations, and endued us all with the same faculties, and that however variable we may be, in society or religion, however diversified in situation or colour, we are all of the same family, and stand in the same relation to him.
If these are sentiments of which you are fully persuaded, I hope you cannot but acknowledge, that it is the indispensible [sic] duty of those who maintain for themselves the rights of human nature, and who profess the obligations of Christianity, to extend their power and influence to the relief of every part of the human race, from whatever burthen or oppression they may unjustify labour under, and this I apprehend a full conviction of the truth and obligation of these principles should lead us all to.
Sir, I have long been convinced, that if your love for yourselves, and those inestimable laws which preserve to you the rights of human nature, was founded on sincerity, you could not but be solicitous, that every individual of whatever rank or distinction, might with you equally enjoy the blessings thereof, neither could you rest satisfied, short of the most active diffusion of your exertions, in order to their promotion from any state of degradation, to which the unjustifiable cruelty and barbarism of men may have reduced them.
I freely and chearfully [sic] acknowledge, that I am of the African race, and in that colour which is natural to them of the most profound gratitude to the Supreme Ruler of the universe, that I now confess to you, that I am not under that state of tyrannical thraldom, and inhuman captivity, to which too many of my brethren are doomed, but that I have abundantly tasted of the fruition of those blessings, which proceed from that free and unequaled liberty with which you are favoured, and which I hope you will willingly allow you have received from the immediate hand of that Being, from whom proceedeth every good and perfect gift.
Suffer me to recal [sic] to your mind that time, in which the arms and tyranny of the British crown were exerted with every powerful effort in order to reduce you to a state of servitude ; look back I intreat you, on the variety of dangers to which you were exposed, reflect on the time in which every human aid appeared unavailable, and in which even hope and fortitude wore the aspect of inability to the conflict, and you cannot but be led to a serious and grateful sense of your miraculous and providential preservation ; you cannot but acknowledge, that the present freedom and tranquility which you enjoy you have mercifully received, and that it is the peculiar blessings of Heaven.
This, Sir, was a time when you clearly saw into the injustice of a state of slavery, and in which you had just apprehensions of the horrors of its condition, - It was now that your abhorrence thereof was so excited, that you publicly held forth this true and invaluable doctrine, which is worthy to be recorded and remembered in all succeeding ages. "We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, and that among these are - life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
Here was a time in which your tender feelings for yourselves had engaged you thus to declare, you were then impressed with proper ideas of the free possession of those blessings to which you were entitled by nature ; but Sir, how pitiable is it to reflect, that although you were so fully convinced of the benevolence of the Father of mankind, and of his equal and impartial distribution of these rights and privileges which he had conferred upon them, that you should at the same time counteract his mercies, in detainting by fraud and violence so numerous a part of my brethren under groaning captivity and cruel oppression, that you should at the same time be found guilty of that most criminal act, which you professedly detested in others, with respect to yourselves.

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I suppose that your knowledge of the situation of my brethren is too extensive to need a recital here ; neither shall I presume to prescribe methods by which they may be relieved, otherwise than by recommending to you and all others, to wean yourselves from those narrow prejudices which you have imbibed with respect to them, and as Job proposed to his friends, "put your soul in their souls' stead," thus shall your hearts be enlarged with kindness and benevolence towards them, and thus shall you need neither the direction of myself or others in what manner to proceed herein.
And now, Sir, although my sympathy and affection for my brethren hath caused my enlargement thus far, I ardently hope that your candour and generosity will plead with you in my behalf, when I make known to you, that it was not originally my design ; but having taken up my pen in order to direct you as a present, a copy of an Almanack which I have calculated for the succeeding year, I was unexpected and unavoidably led thereto.
This calculation is the production of my arduous study in this my advanced stage of life (59) for having long had unbounded desires to become acquainted with the secrets of nature, I have had to gratify my curiosity herein through my own assiduous application to Astronomical study, in which I need not recount to you the many difficulties and disadvantages which I have had to encounter.
And although I had almost declined to make my calculation for the ensuing year, in consequence of that time which I had allotted therefor being taken up at the Federal Territory by the request of Mr. Andrew Ellicott, yet finding myself under several engagements to Printers of this state to whom I had communicated my design, on my return to my place of residence, I industriously applied myself thereto, which I hope I have accomplished with correctness and accuracy, a copy of which I have taken the liberty to direct to you, and which I humbly request you will favorably receive, and although you may have the opportunity of perusing it after its publication, yet I chuse to send it to you in manuscript previous thereto, that thereby you might not only have an earlier inspection, but that you might also view it in my own hand-wrighting.
And now, Sir, I shall conclude, and subscribe myself with the most profound respect, your most obedient humble servant,
BENJAMIN BANNIKER.
N. B. Any communication to me may be had by a direction to Mr. Elias Ellicott, merchant in Baltimore town. B. B.
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To Mr. Benjamin Banneker.
Philadelphia, August 30, 1791.
SIR,
I thank you sincerely for your letter of the 19th inst. and for the almanack it contained. No body wishes more than I do, to see such proofs as you exhibit, that nature has given to our black brethren talents equal to those of the other colours of men, and that the appearance of a want of them is owing merely to the degraded condition of their existence both in Africa and America. I can add with truth that no body wished more ardently to see a good system commenced for raising the condition both of their body and mind to what it ought to be, as fast as the imbecillity [sic] of their present existence, and other circumstances which cannot be neglected, will admit.

I have taken the liberty of sending your almanack to Monsieur de Condozett, secretary of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and member of the Philanthropic Society, because I considered it as a document to which your whole colour had a right for their justification, against the documents which have been entertained of them.
I am with great esteem, sir,
Your most obedient
Humble servant,
THOMAS JEFFERSON -

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